IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 79

Eólica
FV + Eólica

FV
Total

400
300
200

59.97 %
Capacidad FV:
107.1 MW

100
0

Emisiones de CO2 (t/MWh)

generación (MW)

500

0.8

0.75

0.7

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Hora (h)
Capacidad eólica:
(a)
198 MW

Motor diésel

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Hora (h)
(b)

Turbina de gas Turbina de vapor Ciclo combinado
(c)

figura 6. (a) Curvas de generación para la energía eólica, FV y la energía total producida el 19 de mayo de 2019 (generación instantánea récord a las 4:20 p.m.), (b) evolución de las emisiones de carbono por MWh producido; y (c) detalle de
las curvas de generación para cada tecnología de generación convencional el 19 de mayo de 2019.

el contenido técnico del proyecto) a la red de transmisión,
y Edistribución (Endesa) a la red de distribución, de hasta
806 MW de centrales FV y eólicas. Endesa emitió permisos
de hasta 806 MW de energía FV y eólica para acceder a
la red de distribución. Otros 2,126 MW de proyectos FV y
eólicos tienen autorización para acceder solamente a la red
(los permisos de conexión aún están pendientes), mientras
que 413 MW están en proceso de obtener autorizaciones de
acceso y conexión, y las solicitudes de 590 MW han sido
rechazadas por problemas técnicos (es decir, solicitudes de
conexión a una subestación saturada o que aún no existe).
No se puede asumir que toda la capacidad FV y eólica con
permisos de acceso y conexión a la red estará funcionando
pronto. Se están detectando actividades especulativas, no
solo en Canarias, sino en todas las regiones españolas. El
gobierno español ha aprobado nuevas normas para prohibir
este tipo de prácticas, pidiendo garantías a todos los promotores e invocando las seguridades en caso de que las nuevas
centrales FV y eólicas no alcancen hitos concretos o no se
conecten a la red en un tiempo determinado.
El principal documento de planificación eléctrica aprobado por el gobierno español para las Islas Canarias y todas
las demás regiones españolas es el " Development of Electricity Transmission Networks 2015-2020 " (Desarrollo de las
redes de transmisión eléctrica 2015-2020) (véase la sección
" Lecturas complementarias " ). Incluye estudios para una
nueva interconexión entre Tenerife y La Gomera, la repotenciación de la interconexión entre Fuerteventura y Lanzarote, y la instalación de un sistema de almacenamiento por
bombeo en Gran Canaria (figura 3). El documento también
noviembre/diciembre 2020	

tabla 4. La flexibilidad promedio de las unidades
eléctricas convencionales en Tenerife.
Tecnología

Arranque en
caliente (min)

Aumento a carga
completa (min)

Turbina de vapor

285

46

Motor diésel

23-68

4-11

Ciclo combinado

330

66

Turbina de gas

24

9

enumera las nuevas unidades eléctricas convencionales propuestas por la empresa de servicios públicos (lo cual incluye
una central eléctrica completamente nueva en Fuerteventura)
y los límites de capacidad para cualquier unidad eléctrica
(convencional o renovable) que se ubicará en cada sistema
eléctrico insular.

Tenerife: el récord de electricidad renovable
inyectada en el sistema
A octubre de 2019, Tenerife tenía el récord de mayor penetración instantánea de energías renovables (59.97 %) para un
sistema eléctrico sin ninguna capacidad de almacenamiento
(sin bombeo, baterías o cualquier otro sistema de almacenamiento al servicio de la red eléctrica) en Canarias. Esto
fue registrado el 19 de mayo de 2019 a las 4:20 p.m. (figura
6). Como era de esperar, las emisiones de CO2 por megavatio hora generadas por unidades eléctricas convencionales
aumentan cuando el suministro de energía renovable alcanza
sus valores más altos, pero crecen solo unos pocos puntos
ieee power & energy magazine 	

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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