IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 82

Generador de
imágenes
desde el cielo

Subestación

figura 8. La localización de dos generadores de imágenes desde el cielo y (b) de la subestación en el sureste de Tenerife.
Las centrales FV de multimegavatios monitoreadas están marcadas con un círculo rojo, los generadores de imágenes desde el cielo están señalados con flechas rojas, y la subestación está marcada con un círculo violeta. (Fuente de la imagen
del mapa: Gobierno de Canarias, www.idecanarias.es).

de las seis redes eléctricas. Además, el costo aumenta significativamente cuando tanto Gorona del Viento como la
central eléctrica convencional están en funcionamiento,
por lo que, para reducir los gastos, es necesario cerrar
la central eléctrica convencional (que solamente incluye
motores diésel) cuando Gorona del Viento cuenta con suficiente energía almacenada. Gran parte del costo adicional
puede atribuirse al hecho de que el retorno de la inversión
en Gorona del Viento fue acelerado por la CNMC debido a
los retrasos en el inicio del funcionamiento de la central y
el reembolso de los préstamos a los bancos que financiaron
el emprendimiento. Todo esto sucedió en paralelo con una
intensa crisis económica. Por último, los préstamos fueron
pagados en 2018 y actualmente el precio reconocido para la
electricidad generada es de € 15.57 / MWh (revisado cada
tres años).
La REE planea replicar Gorona del Viento en Gran Canaria utilizando los embalses existentes de Chira (5.6 millones
de m3) y Soria (32.3 millones de m3) y la puesta en marcha
de un sistema de almacenamiento de 200 MW/3.82 GWh.
El proyecto, valorado en € 391 millones, comenzó en 2007,
con una finalización prevista en 65 meses. Sin embargo,
hay cierta oposición pública al proyecto debido al posible
impacto ambiental en la zona. Además, se habla de la propiedad de esta central eléctrica, si finalmente se pone en
funcionamiento, dado el papel simultáneo de la REE como
gestor del sistema y productor. La REE justifica su posición
82	

ieee power & energy magazine	

argumentando que el sistema de bombeo solo funcionará
como dispositivo de regulación para la red eléctrica.
Es evidente que, para alcanzar el 100 % de energía renovable en los sistemas eléctricos insulares, almacenar energía
en sistemas de bombeo, baterías y unidades térmicas para
la regulación terciaria podrá ser una estrategia clave. Además, los sistemas de conversión de gas-a-almacenamiento
de energía podrían desempeñar un papel central porque la
tierra disponible en las islas es escasa y costosa, los permisos administrativos necesarios para ocupar grandes áreas
demoran en obtenerse, y la densidad energética del hidrógeno y el metano por unidad de superficie ocupada es mucho
mayor que la de las baterías y, por supuesto, la de los sistemas de bombeo. En la regulación primaria y secundaria,
no obstante, hay otra opción interesante para mantener la
frecuencia de la red en el rango permitido: la tecnología de
predicción a corto plazo. En esta área, los satélites y (sobre
todo) los generadores de imágenes desde el cielo pueden desempeñar un papel fundamental. El atractivo de los satélites
para el pronóstico en las islas es limitado debido a la resolución espacial y el intervalo entre las imágenes presentadas,
pero la información que se proporciona puede ser útil.
Los generadores de imágenes desde el cielo proporcionan
información más localizada con una mayor resolución. Su
precisión para pronosticar la potencia FV es limitada, pero
la tecnología puede desempeñar un papel como un sistema
de advertencia para la empresa de servicios públicos. Se han
noviembre/diciembre 2020


http://www.idecanarias.es

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
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