IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 85

Sobretensión y
centrales FV

Tensión (kV)

En estrella a tierra/
Cuando se aíslan de la conexión a
En estrella a tierra
tierra principal del sistema, las FED
pueden contribuir a una sobretensión por fallas subterráneas (GFO,
Sin preferencia
por sus siglas en inglés) en fases no
afectadas por fallas en un sistema
En estrella a tierra/En delta
de cuatro cables. La conexión a
(a tierra de lado primario)
tierra efectiva tiene como objetivo
limitar la sobretensión de línea a
En delta/En estrella a tierra
tierra a 0.8 Vl-l. Mantener este coe(en delta de lado primario)
ficiente de conexión a tierra es un
objetivo de diseño clásico en los
En estrella a tierra/En delta (con
sistemas eléctricos trifásicos y se
una conexión reactivamente en
estrella de lado primario a tierra)
define en el Estándar C62.92 del
IEEE/ANSI.
En delta/En estrella a tierra (con
Para la generación distribuida
una conexión reactivamente en
(GD), la preocupación por la GFO
estrella a tierra en el lado de GD)
es un factor clave en la selección
No se requiere
del transformador de conexión
transformador de interconexión
de red. En el caso de las FED de
máquinas síncronas, normalmente
0
10
20
30
40
50
se requiere que las conexiones
(%)
proporcionen conexión a tierra de
sistema complementario. Para las
figura 1. Las conexiones de transformador preferidas para los sistemas basados en
FED conectadas a inversores, la
inversores (Fuente: Artículo 3002001277 de EPRI).
necesidad es menos clara debido
a un comportamiento ante fallas
significativamente diferente. Cuando se requiere conexión
a tierra complementaria, se realiza a través de la intercoVA
50
nexión o de un transformador de conexión a tierra (GT, por
VB
sus siglas en inglés) especial. También se podría requerir un
VC
reactor en el neutro del transformador para la coordinación
de la protección.
0
La figura 1 muestra los resultados de un estudio de 2013
del Instituto de Investigación de Energía Eléctrica (EPRI,
por sus siglas en inglés) en que se identifica la configuración del transformador Yg-Yg como la conexión de FED
-50
más común. Un estudio de 2020 del EPRI presentó resulta13.5 13.55 13.6 13.65 13.7 13.75 13.8 13.85
dos similares. Dado que la conexión Yg-Yg no proporciona
Tiempo (seg.)
una conexión a tierra efectiva, se plantea la pregunta sobre
los requerimientos complementarios para las centrales FV. figura 2. La LRO medida en una central eléctrica solar
El panorama actual es mixto, ya que algunas empresas de a escala de servicios públicos. La desconexión de la red
servicios públicos requieren conexión a tierra y otras no. Si ocurrió a los 13.5 segundos.
se requiere, los detalles sobre cómo lograr una conexión a
tierra efectiva varía por diferencias en los sistemas de dis- de servicios públicos que ahora requieren conexión a tierra
tribución, pero también por diferencias en las opiniones y complementaria de FED podrían considerar que la carga
prácticas tradicionales.
conectada a tierra es efectiva para los inversores en el futuro.
En el estudio más reciente de 2020, el EPRI entrevistó a Esta consideración de los inversores está propuesta en el
20 grandes empresas de servicios públicos en relación con Estándar C62.92-6 del IEEE/ANSI y en el Informe técnico
las prácticas de conexión a tierra de los sistemas y las cen- 21 de la IEEE Power & Energy Society. Se espera que esta
trales de energía FV. Hubo una división exacta de opiniones nueva cara de un problema antiguo continúe evolucionando
sobre el requerimiento de conexión a tierra complementaria con más fuentes de energía FV y almacenamiento de energía
para las FED basadas en inversores. Tres de 10 empresas interconectados a inversores.
noviembre/diciembre 2020 i	

eee power & energy magazine 	

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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