IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 86

Las sobretensiones que superen la capacidad de resistencia de los
equipos podrían provocar fallas en el protector de sobretensiones
de media tensión y en el transformador de medida, así como daños
en los equipos de carga.

Otra preocupación relativa a la sobretensión para los
inversores es su respuesta a un pérdida repentina de carga.
La sobretensión por rechazo de carga (LRO, por sus siglas
en inglés) se presenta cuando se desconecta un inversor de
seguimiento de la red, por ejemplo, debido a la operación del
interruptor. Las sobretensiones se presentan debido a que hay
un excedente temporal de generación. Un estudio reciente
realizado por Dominion Energy sobre centrales eléctricas
solares a escala de servicios públicos registró niveles elevados de tensión tras la desconexión repentina de centrales FV.
La figura 2 muestra un ejemplo reflejado en una central
típica de 5 MW a escala de servicios públicos en 34.5 kV.
La sobretensión transitoria en esta central llegó al 159 % de
la tensión nominal y duró 12 ciclos. Este fenómeno no es
poco común con el rechazo rápido de la carga. Dentro de los
1,128 eventos de rechazo de carga detectados, el 12 % mostró magnitudes de tensión media cuadrática sobre el 140 %

35

VA
VB
VC

Tensión (kV)

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

0

0.05

0.1
0.15
Tiempo (seg.)

0.2

del nominal, y la mayoría de los eventos duró entre uno y
seis ciclos.
Las sobretensiones que superen la capacidad de resistencia de los equipos podrían provocar fallas en el protector
de sobretensiones de media tensión (MT) y en el transformador de medida, así como daños en los equipos de carga.
Se han reportado incidentes de fallas de equipos asociados
con LRO de centrales FV, por lo que se recomienda elegir
equipos de interconexión para centrales capaces de manejar las sobretensiones transitorias. Por ejemplo, es probable
que los protectores de sobretensiones y transformadores de
potencial con niveles de aislamiento básicos más altos toleren las LRO.
Mientras tanto, se aplicaron límites de sobretensión a los
inversores en Hawái y se han agregado al Estándar 15472018 del IEEE. Lo confirmaron las pruebas de laboratorio
en los inversores que realizaron el Laboratorio Nacional de
Energías Renovables y South California Edison. El EPRI
también está realizando investigaciones para la Autoridad
de Investigación y Desarrollo de Energía del Estado de
Nueva York para entender mejor cómo se combina la LRO
con la GFO durante las fallas desequilibradas. Este trabajo
también incluía el rol de la carga de modo de isla y de los
protectores de sobretensiones de MT.
Mirando hacia el futuro, se espera que la LRO y la GFO
en los inversores sean mitigadas en gran medida con la aplicación del nuevo Estándar 1547-2018 del IEEE. Un inversor
certificado con el estándar " no provocará que la tensión de
línea a tierra de frecuencia fundamental supere el 138 % por
una duración que supere un ciclo " .

(a)

Contribuciones de fallas y arco eléctrico

350
Corriente (A)

300

I1
I2
I0

250
200
150
100
50
0

Contribución de fallas de las centrales FV
0

0.05

0.1
0.15
Tiempo (seg.)

0.2

(b)

figura 3. La contribución de fallas de los inversores solares:
(a) tensión de fase y (b) corriente de componentes simétricos.
86	

Las centrales FV tienen corriente de falla limitada, pero
pueden extender el tiempo de despeje de fallas. La conexión
a tierra complementaria se puede agregar a la corriente de
falla y al arco eléctrico. Se necesita un análisis más profundo
para informar las prácticas a los trabajadores de líneas.

ieee power & energy magazine 	

La representación precisa de un cortocircuito es clave para
la coordinación de la protección y los ajustes de los relés.
A diferencia de los generadores síncronos, los inversores
solares actúan como una fuente de secuencia positiva y,
dependiendo del diseño, tienen una corriente de falla insignificante de secuencia cero y negativa. La figura 3 muestra
noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
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