IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 87

una falla monofásica a tierra cerca de una central eléctrica manera diferente al modo de control del soporte reactivo. Por
de energía solar FV de 20 MW. La fase con fallas se redujo lo tanto, se recomienda que las empresas de servicios públial 35 % de la tensión nominal. En respuesta, los inversores cos verifiquen los ajustes de los inversores durante el proceso
contribuyeron a la ubicación de la corriente de falla.
de la puesta en funcionamiento y validen el rendimiento del
La figura 3 muestra las corrientes de falla de componen- modelo a través de mediciones de campo continuas.
tes simétricas de los inversores solares. Se observa que la
corriente de falla fue dominada por una corriente de secuen- Energía incidente del arco eléctrico en
cia positiva (I1). Componentes negativos y de secuencia cero centrales FV
(I2 e I0) constituyen menos del 5 % de la corriente nominal. El Cuando los equipos de campo trabajan en alimentadores de
reconector del punto de interconexión (POI, por sus siglas en distribución energizados, existe preocupación por las fallas
inglés) finalmente se abrió y eliminó la contribución de los inversores. Durante todo el evento, la
magnitud de la corriente de falla
de los inversores no aumentó significativamente, y limitada por la
luz solar, solo llegó al 80 % de la
corriente nominal.
Las contribuciones de fallas
observadas de los inversores solares son relativamente bajas y muy
diferentes de las de los generadores síncronos en los tres componentes de secuencia. Esto ilustra
la razón por la que los inversores deben ser tratados de manera
diferente en cualquier modelos
y cortocircuito y plataforma de figura 4. Un equipo de campo trabajando en líneas energizadas en una instalación
simulación.
de capacitación de Dominion Energy (Fuente: Dominion Energy).
Los esfuerzos colectivos de la
industria han mejorado enormemente las técnicas de modelado
Área expuesta a fase abierta
de la generación basada en inversores. Actualmente, la mayoría
Carga monofásica de conexión
descendente del F01
de las plataformas de simulación,
como ASPEN, CAPE y ETAP,
F01
proporcionan modelos de inversores. Los inversores solares se
Fase C
Protección de
modelan como una fuente de
abierta
POI de energía FV
Instalación
de
R
corriente controlada por tensión.
(sin cargas de
tratamiento
Al llenar una tabla que registre la
clientes)
de aguas
magnitud de las corrientes de falla
Subestación
y los ángulos en distintas tensiones de terminales, se incorporan
las características de las fallas en
el análisis.
Aun así, se requiere tomar
precauciones para la modelación
de inversores solares. Además de
Dos de cinco sitios de energía FV
los límites de corriente inherende 1 MVA, energizados en
tes, los inversores solares responperiodo de eventos
den a fallas por modos de control
preprogramados. Por ejemplo,
el modo de control del factor de figura 5. Un ejemplo de un evento de fase abierta preliminar de una central FV.
potencia unitario se comportará de F01: fusible de línea C de fase abierta; R: reconector de sitios.
noviembre/diciembre 2020 i	

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 3
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 128
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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