IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 88

accidentales y el arco eléctrico (véase la figura 4). El peligro se mide por la energía incidente del arco en kilocalorías
por centímetro cuadrado. El arco eléctrico correlaciona la
tensión de la línea, la magnitud de la corriente de falla y el
tiempo de despeje de fallas. Las FED pueden contribuir al
arco eléctrico. La práctica de la industria es calcular la energía incidente del arco eléctrico de manera individual para
que se proporcione ropa de seguridad resistente al fuego al
personal de campo.
Las FED pueden aumentar la energía incidente del arco
eléctrico principalmente de dos maneras. Primero, los bobinados del transformador elevador, como la conexión de MT en
estrella a tierra y en delta a la FED, proporcionan una fuente de
secuencia cero. Esta configuración puede reducir la corriente
de tierra de la subestación y retrasar el despeje de fallas en el
dispositivo de protección conectado aguas arriba. Segundo,
después de la pérdida de la fuente de red y antes del disparo de
la central, las FED pueden retroalimentar la falla. Esta parte
de la energía incidente del arco eléctrico se correlaciona con
el tiempo de funcionamiento de la central antes del disparo.
Las mitigaciones de fallas de arco de la central FV
incluyen resistores de puesta a tierra y ajustes de relés de

reconectores instalados en el POI. Muchas empresas de
servicios públicos habilitan también el despeje de fallas de
alta velocidad en los relés de los alimentadores cuando los
equipos están trabajando en una línea. El despeje instantáneo reducirá en gran medida el tiempo de despeje de fallas
y la contribución de la red a la exposición del arco eléctrico.
Las grandes centrales FV integradas al sistema de distribución a menudo requerirán estudios de coordinación de la
protección para determinar los ajustes de los relés de los alimentadores y de la central. También se necesitan revisiones
del diseño y un proceso de puesta en marcha para asegurar
que las configuraciones de la central eléctrica solar cumplan
con los requerimientos de protección.

Funcionamiento monofásico

Dada la existencia de alimentadores trifásicos, ¿qué rol juegan las FED? Puede haber incidentes de fase abierta (o un
funcionamiento monofásico en los circuitos de distribución
trifásicos). Esto plantea varias preocupaciones para las centrales FV. Dependiendo de la configuración del transformador y la salida de la FED a la carga, se podría regenerar la
tensión en la fase abierta. Durante el incidente de fase abierta,
esto lleva a una regulación deficiente o genera tensiones elevadas
tabla 1. Un resumen de los resultados de pruebas de fase abierta muestra
y puede exponer al público a un
34 fallas en 82 sitios de grandes centrales FV.
conductor caído bajo tensión.
Razones de
Paró pero se reinició
No
Detención Tensión de Otras
Estos eventos no son raros en
fallas
en <5 min.
paró de
produjo
fase abierta razones
un sistema de distribución con
generar
>2 seg. de >1.1 por
protección independiente para
energía
demora
unidad
cada fase, como los reconectores
Número de
1
2
16
3
12
monofásicos. Pueden presentarse
fallas
en un despeje de fallas monofásiSección del
4.10.35
6.2.26
-
cas si se abre un solo interruptor o
Estándar 1547
fusible o cuando se rompe un condel IEEE
ductor. La figura 5 muestra el caso
(Fuente: Xcel Energy; usado con permiso).
de un fusible quemado.

V
Capacitor filtro en
inversor de AC

Impedancia
de línea

Transformador
de interconexión

BK3

Impedancia de
cable UG

BK1, Fase C
abierta

BK2
interruptor cerrado
V

Medidor de tensión

GT

figura 6. El diseño de una central, desde la línea principal del alimentador a la derecha hasta la central FV a la izquierda,
con sus dispositivos de protección (BK) y conexión de cable subterráneo (UG).
88	

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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