IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 89

El rol las FED en
eventos de fase abierta
Aunque los incidentes de fase abierta son una preocupación
sin las FED, la incorporación de centrales FV trifásicas ha
generado un aumento en incidentes reportados. Una explicación es la mayor cantidad de fusibles y fuentes de generación a escala de central. El diseño de la central, el control
de retroalimentación y las conexiones de los transformados
juegan un rol. Los comportamientos varían entre los cables
subterráneos, los diferentes bobinados de los transformadores y la incorporación de conexión a tierra complementaria.
Aunque el Estándar 1547-2018 del IEEE prohíbe la retroalimentación de las FED en condiciones de red anormales
como lo son los eventos de fase abierta, detectar un evento
de fase abierta en el lado de alta de la central desde los terminales de las FED puede resultar difícil. Dependiendo de
los bobinados de los transformadores de interconexión (T,
Y o Yg), la tensión de los terminales de las FED podrían
mantenerse en el rango operativo normal. Las empresas de

servicios públicos han reportado retrasos en la puesta en
marcha de las centrales como resultado de las fallas en las
pruebas de campo de fase abierta.
La tabla 1 muestra los resultados de la experiencia de
campo de la puesta en marcha de las centrales FV, registrados
en el artículo 3002015949 de EPRI en abril de 2019. Estas
centrales se construyeron antes del nuevo estándar 1547 del
IEEE. Las soluciones típicas son la incorporación de relés
de secuencia negativa en el lado primario o de cambios en
el firmware del inversor. La sección del Estándar 1547 del
IEEE a la que se hace referencia exige que las FED " dejen de
energizar y disparen " inmediatamente tras la detección. Un
disparo implica un tiempo de retraso de 5 minutos después
del restablecimiento de la tensión.
Los incidentes de fase abierta de los alimentadores
son problemáticos para las centrales FV, con o sin retroalimentación de las FED. Se puede recrear una tensión
en la fase abierta a través de los rebobinados del transformador de la central y en el caso de la capacitancia de

tabla 2. La tensión de fase abierta con inversor deja de energizar.
Tensión de fase abierta

Tipo de transformador

Yg/Yg (tramo 5)

Yg/Y (tramo 5)

Yg/T

T/Yg

Con GT y capacitancia

Primario/secundario

1.2/1.18 p.u.

1.11/1.08 p.u.

N/A

1.38/1.21 p.u.

Sin GT y con capacitancia

Primario/secundario

Ferroresonancia

Ferroresonancia

~1 p.u.

Ferroresonancia

Sin GT ni capacitancia

Primario/secundario

0.6 p.u.

0.7 p.u.

1 p.u.

0.4 p.u.

N/A: no aplicable.

Modo de isla

Se abre con
la detección
FED
Disyuntor/
Fusibles
Fase abierta

Subestación

figura 7. Un incidente de fase abierta (mitad del alimentador) detectado por la central FV conectada en sentido descendente. (Fuente: EPRI).
noviembre/diciembre 2020 i	

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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