IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 90

Vneg
Ineg
Disparos de
inversor

Disparos de
inversor

Vneg_trip
td
t

Vneg_trip

Evento de fase abierta
(a)

Vneg_db

Vneg

(b)

figura 8. Detección pasiva de fase abierta (a) monitoreando la reducción en la tensión de la secuencia negativa o (b)
inyectando de manera activa corriente de secuencia negativa.

los cables. La figura 6 ilustra el diseño
tabla 3. La efectividad antes y después del Estándar 1547-2018 del
de una central en que la tensión en la
IEEE depende del transformador.
fase abierta llegó a 1.2 por unidad (p.u.)
Yg/Yg
Yg/Y
cuando los inversores dejaron de enerCasos
de
gizar, dejando el filtro de CA conectensión de
tado. Esto no es inusual para las instafase
Tipo de
laciones que requieren GT y donde los
abierta
transformador tramo 5
tramo 5
Yg/T
T/Yg
cables de MT agregan capacitancia al
Detección IEEE
Buena
Buena
Deficiente Buena
circuito abierto.
pasiva
1547A-2014
El modelado con GT y capacitancia
IEEE
Deficiente Deficiente Deficiente Deficiente
de los cables indica que la tensión de
1547-2018
fase abierta en estado estacionario llegó
Detección IEEE
Mejor
Mejor
Buena
Mejor
a 1.1-1.2 p.u. Sin la capacitancia de los
activa
1547A-2014
cables y la conexión a tierra, la tenIEEE
Buena
Buena
Buena
Buena
sión en la fase abierta es normalmente
1547-2018
menor, de aproximadamente 0.5-1  p.u.
La tabla 2 resume las tensiones primarias y secundarias esperadas para cuatro tipos básicos y Oportunidad de detección
comunes de bobinados de transformadores de interco- Las FED conectadas a inversores pueden detectar eventos de
nexión, suponiendo que no hay carga. La tabla muestra fase abierta y lado primario usando componentes de secuenlos resultados con y sin GT, sin inversores ni capacitancia cia negativa. El EPRI ha demostrado que tales métodos de
de los cables.
detección de inversores son efectivos dependiendo de la
✔✔ Caso con primario en Yg/secundario en Yg: con un conexión del transformador de la central y de la generación
GT local, la tensión estacionaria podría aparecer en relativa para los niveles de carga. La detección de inversores
la fase abierta. El nivel depende de la capacitancia del puede alertar a los operadores de sistemas que tomen medicircuito y de la reactancia del GT. Sin un GT y con una das correctivas de seguimiento si se agregan comunicaciocarga baja, la capacitancia de los cables y las condicio- nes, como se muestra en la figura 7.
nes de carga nula pueden generar una resonancia no
Hasta aquí, con un diseño adecuado, no puede surgir
lineal (ferroresonancia).
conflicto entre el periodo de protección de las FED y la
✔✔ Caso con primario en Yg/secundario en Y: la ferrore- detección de fase abierta, aunque podría ser necesaria una
sonancia se puede eliminar con un GT de lado de MT. respuesta tardía para permitir un periodo de protección
✔✔ Caso con primario en Yg/secundario en Δ: la cone- durante eventos desbalanceados. Es necesario que se perxión a tierra efectiva recrea una tensión de 1 p.u. en mita este retraso, de hasta 5 minutos de duración, durante
la fase abierta.
las pruebas de puesta en marcha de las FED. Se muestran
✔✔ Caso con primario en Δ/secundario en Yg: la ferrore- métodos de detección tanto pasiva como activa en la figura
sonancia es más probable y grave.
8. Este efecto relativo de la configuración del transformador
90	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 120
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 128
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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