IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 91

e
dd

s

ne

cio

a
nic

mu

co

Receptor
de DTT

Re

Int

err

Transmisor
de DTT

up

tor

Relé

FED

Subestación
Modo de isla

figura 9. Los componentes básicos de un esquema de DTT (Fuente: EPRI).

de interconexión se muestra en la
tabla 3.

Prevención del modo
de isla y
prácticas de
reconexión de sitios

¿Cuáles son sus prácticas actuales para abordar el riesgo del modo de isla
para las FED? Elija la que mejor se ajuste a su empresa
Exigimos DTT sobre criterios específicos
y estamos felices con esto

21 %

Exigimos DTT, en general estamos felices,
¿Deberíamos renunciar al disparo
41 %
pero buscamos alternativas
de transferencia directa (DTT, por
Evitamos DTT considerando la poca
sus siglas en inglés)? Con niveles
probabilidad de que coincida con la carga y
31 %
por otros medios como el bloqueo de
de implementación que superan la
reconectores
carga mínima en muchos lugares,
No hemos necesitado DTT para inversores,
las empresas de servicios públisolo una mayor generación síncrona
cos deben considerar los efectos
de la potencia inversa y el riesgo
Ninguna de las anteriores
7%
del modo de isla involuntario de
las FED cuando se pierda la conexión de una red. El modo de isla
involuntario ha sido una preocu- figura 10. Un estudio reciente del EPRI de 76 empresas de servicios públicos en
pación de larga data en los Esta- relación con la aplicación del DTT.
dos Unidos, comenzando con la
Ley sobre Políticas Normativas para Empresas de Servicios síncronas. Las protecciones de relés convencionales detecPúblicos (PURPA, por sus siglas en inglés) de 1978. Aunque tan de manera pasiva las condiciones en modo de isla y se
las normas de interconexión para las instalaciones que cali- limitan a las mediciones de tensión y/o frecuencia sin una
fican han recorrido un largo camino, la idea de la operación retroalimentación positiva.
no supervisada de las FED aún es una consideración clave
para la seguridad y confiabilidad de la red.
Prácticas de prevención del modo de isla
Desde la PURPA y, mayormente, todavía hoy, se ha exi- La práctica común ha sido aumentar la detección local con
gido la transmisión y comunicaciones a nivel de servicios DTT cuando se abre un dispositivo de protección conecpúblicos para las grandes centrales FV basadas en máquinas tado aguas arriba. Los sistemas de DTT (o disparo de
noviembre/diciembre 2020 i	

eee power & energy magazine 	

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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