IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 92

A diferencia de los generadores síncronos, los inversores solares
actúan como una fuente de secuencia positiva y, dependiendo del
diseño, tienen una corriente de falla insignificante de secuencia
cero y negativa.

t-ransferencia) se usan para desconectar rápidamente las
FED cuando se abre un interruptor de alimentación, habitualmente en la subestación; véase la figura 9.
La prevención del modo de isla usando el DTT controlado por la empresa de servicios públicos es confiable y
efectiva, pero suele ser costosa para los sitios individuales. En realidad puede no ser práctica para altas cantidades de sitios de FED. Se están considerando alternativas
para comunicaciones distintas al cobre y la fibra, como un
operador de línea eléctrica y las comunicaciones celulares.
Además, se usan prácticas que extiendan el tiempo para
reconectar un dispositivo de línea principal en algunas
áreas con alta penetración de FED. Las prácticas actuales
para abordar el riesgo del modo de isla de las FED varían
entre las empresas de servicios públicos, como se muestra
en la figura 10.
Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) y Dominion
Energy participaron en el estudio, y los autores proporcionaron estos detalles adicionales en sus prácticas.
✔✔ En California, todas las empresas de servicios públicos de propiedad de inversores siguen la Regla 21
de California para detectar preocupaciones sobre el

modo de isla, incluso aunque el riesgo varía entre las
empresas de servicios públicos, los tipos de centrales
y las características de los alimentadores. En PG&E,
se han usado reconectores controlados por el sistema de control de supervisión y adquisición de datos
(SCADA, por sus siglas en inglés) en casos de centrales FV individuales más grandes conectadas a un sistema de distribución de 12.5 kV. Aunque este enfoque
es más lento que el DTT convencional, proporciona
telemetría y desconexión del modo de isla de la central de manera rentable. La reconexión se demora 10
segundos en coordinarse con el sistema de SCADA y
reducir el riesgo de una conexión desfasada. Además,
se puede aplicar el bloqueo de reconexión de tensión
en algunos dispositivos. En este caso, se comprueba la
magnitud de la tensión de la línea para verificar que
esté desenergizada, y se bloquea la reconexión automática si la tensión es ≥15  % de la tensión nominal
durante el intento de reconexión automática.
PG&E también evalúa agregar FED en las secciones de subestaciones y líneas de transmisión para asegurar que la totalidad no presente un riesgo de modo
de isla. Esto ha sido de suma preocupación debido a la alta penetración de conjuntos de FED y a
Elija la descripción que mejor describa las prácticas de su empresa de servicios
la retroalimentación en el sistema
públicos para controlar que los reconectores se conecten a las centrales de FED
de transmisión (con inquietudes
Se usa el reconector para S/S de V y
relativas a la GFO). Normalmente
disparo de F; desconexión por
A
48 %
interrupciones del alimentador y
se exige el DTT para todas las
demoras en la reenergización
máquinas síncronas. Son comunes en las centrales eléctricas del
Se usa el reconector para S/S de V y
B
30 %
disparo de F; desconexión por
Valle de San Joaquín y en las ceninterrupciones del alimentador
trales hidroeléctricas pequeñas de
Normalmente se limita el uso del
la Sierra Nevada. En las centrales
C 11 %
reconector al interruptor de activación/
FV con sistemas de detección de
desactivación para el operador y/o DTT
modo de isla integrados y certificadas con el estándar UL 1741SA,
Solo se requiere el reconector si el DTT
D
no se les exige el DTT en la mayoes específicado
ría de los casos. Estos criterios
pueden actualizarse de acuerdo
Se evitan los reconectores de FED que
E 11 %
requieran control de servicios públicos
con las iniciativas de revisión
constante, como se describe el
Informe final del Grupo de trabajo 4 (véase " Lecturas complefigura 11. Las prácticas aplicadas a los reconectores de sitios de FED, con respuestas de 76 empresas de servicios públicos.
mentarias " ).
92	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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