IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 94

Central
eléctrica solar
Cortafuegos

Servidor de datos

Red empresarial
Red celular

figura 13. El sistema de monitoreo solar desarrollado por Dominion Energy.

Corriente (A)

1,000
0
iA
iB
iC

-1,000
-2,000

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25 0.3
Tiempo (seg.)
(a)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Tensión (kV)

22
20

VA
VB
VC

18
16

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25 0.3
Tiempo (seg.)
(b)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

figura 14. La energización de los transformadores de FED induce a corrientes de
interrupción y caídas de tensión.

partir del Estándar 1547-2003 del IEEE, ha sido un requerimiento para la certificación de FED, pero los métodos suelen ser tratados como información confidencial y no están
bien definidos en las especificaciones. Estudios recientes del
EPRI y Sandia National -Laboratories (de los Estados Unidos) han considerado las funciones de apoyo a la red y los
requerimientos de soporte a la red durante fallas (fault ridethrough) del Estándar 1547-2018 del IEEE.
Estos estudios revelaron que algunos métodos de detección funcionan mejor que otros. Los resultados clave fueron
las definiciones de los métodos genéricos de detección del
modo de isla. Los estudios abordaron la evaluación de rendimiento de cada método, como la sensibilidad a la combinación de FED, la carga del sistema y las características de
los alimentadores. Se reveló que las funciones de soporte y
apoyo a la red tienen un impacto limitado en el rendimiento
de los métodos de detección activa del modo de isla.
Los requerimientos de soporte a la red han hecho que
las directrices de Sandia desarrolladas anteriormente para la
evaluación del riesgo de modo de isla involuntario sea menos
94	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

aplicable con los crecientes niveles
de penetración de FED. Antes, un
desequilibro de 67  % de generación/carga y 1 % de var (potencia
reactiva) eran criterios razonables.
Con la categoría III de soporte a
la red del Estándar 1547-2018 del
IEEE, una detección simple implicaría criterios desequilibrados
conservadores de 25 % de generación/carga y 7 % de var.
Este trabajo indica que es
necesario que ocurran dos cosas
para que se acepte la protección
integrada como una alternativa al
DTT. La primera es que los fabricantes de inversores identifiquen
los métodos genéricos de detección que están usando. La segunda
es que las empresas de servicios
públicos actualicen los métodos
de evaluación de riesgo del modo
de isla para que justifiquen los
requerimientos de soporte a la
red. La certificación es necesario
pero no suficiente. Las evaluaciones deben considerar la ubicación
de las centrales y el tipo de FED,
el balance de carga/generación, la
cantidad y el tipo de eventos de
pérdida de la red, y detalles del
método de detección.

Prácticas de coordinación
de los reconectores de
sitios en las centrales
En directa relación con el DTT y el apoyo a la red de FED,
existe la necesidad de coordinar los relés que controlan los
reconectores de interconexión entre las centrales y las redes.
Los relés multifuncionales de sitios de las centrales, instalados con reconectores, tienen un rango completo de opciones
de ajustes de protección. Normalmente, se requieren estos
reconectores para el control operativo de activación/desactivación de instalaciones más grandes de FED. Observamos
que, en muchos casos, también se usan como medio de desconexión para un esquema de DTT a nivel de protección.
Es importante que los relés estén ajustados para respetar los
requerimientos de soporte a la red de la central de FED.
En otro estudio reciente, consultamos por prácticas actuales/ajustes de relés en las centrales de FED. Como se muestra
en la figura 11, hay dos respuestas principales.
✔✔ El reconector se usa para disparos de sobretensión/subtensión y frecuencia, la desconexión por pérdida momentánea de potencia, el monitoreo del estado de las centrales
y para asegurar la demora de la reenergización (48 %).
noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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