IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 118

eólica en Sinkiang y Gansu representó el 48.5 % de la restricción total a nivel nacional (gráfico 4). No se restringió la
energía solar en 29 provincias. La energía solar restringida
en Sinkiang y Gansu representó el 80 % del total a nivel
nacional (gráfico 5).
Características de la restricción de la generación
eólica y solar

periodo de calefacción. La restricción de la energía solar
sucedió principalmente durante las horas del mediodía
(12:00 a 2:00 p.m.) durante todo el año, cuando la generación solar estaba al máximo.

Estrategias principales para abordar la
restricción de GV

En China, los gobiernos nacionales y locales junto con las
empresas de energía han implementado varias medidas para
abordar el problema de la restricción de la GV. Estas medidas incluyen medios técnicos para mejorar la flexibilidad del
sistema energético, así como políticas que faciliten el desarrollo renovable, lo cual incluye cambios en los mercados de
electricidad.
Los generadores alimentados a carbón han sido adaptados para hacer que la generación convencional sea más
flexible. Adicionalmente, las plantas de energía de GV han
sido equipadas con una capacidad
de protección de alta y baja tensión, lo cual mejora el respaldo de
las redes eléctricas. Se ha comSudoeste de
Noreste de China
China
pletado la construcción de líneas
Liaoning
Sudoeste de China
0.02 %
Jilin
Sichuan
de transmisión entre provincias y
Heilongjiang
Chongqing
Noreste de
entre regiones y el suministro de
Mongolia
Tíbet
China
la generación por mayores áreas
Interior del Este
0.59 %
Noroeste de
de equilibrio para utilizar diverNorte de China
China
Norte de China
Noroeste de China
sas ubicaciones de recursos y pro0.28 %
99.11 %
Pekín
Shaanxi
ducción. Del lado de la demanda,
Tianjin
Gansu
el uso más amplio de la electriciHebei
Qinghai
Shanxi
dad en lugar de otras fuentes de
Ningxia
Shandong
Sinkiang
energía, como la calefacción y la
alimentación de vehículos, también aumenta la capacidad de la
gráfico 5. La distribución de la restricción de energía solar en las áreas operativas
red eléctrica para interconectar
de la SGCC en 2016.
más GV.
Las principales políticas y
mecanismos de mercado fomentan
400
18
el cambio de la recientemente ins358.9
talada capacidad de GV a China
15.56 %
16
350
central y oriental desde las regio293.9
14
14.72 %
300
nes de Tres Nortes y fomentan la
12
10.4
%
participación de la GV en varios
250
223.8
10
tipos de comercio de mercado. Las
200
169.9
8
principales soluciones de mercado
5.76 %
150
incluyen: mercados al contado
6
entre regiones para la GV, mer100
4
cados de servicios auxiliares de
50
2
despacho descendente para incen0
0
tivar el despacho descendente de
2015
2016
2017
2018
la generación convencional, y el
Capacidad instalada de GV (GW)
comercio de derechos de generaTasa de restricción de la GV
ción entre las GV y las plantas de
energía alimentadas a carbón para
el autoabastecimiento de los congráfico 6. La capacidad instalada y la tasa de restricción de GV en China en
sumidores.
2015-2018.
(%)

Entre 2013 y 2015, en el área operativa de la SGCC,
aproximadamente el 70 % de la restricción de la energía eólica ocurrió durante la temporada de calefacción (octubre a abril). Este es el caso especialmente
en el norte y noreste de China, donde más del 80 % de
la restricción de la energía eólica se produjo durante
el periodo de calefacción. La restricción de la energía
eólica durante las horas de carga baja representó el 80
% de la restricción total de la energía eólica durante el

118

ieee power & energy magazine

noviembre/diciembre 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover4
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