IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 26

Secretos
para una
integración
exitosa
Experiencia operativa
con altos niveles de generación
variable basada en inversores

L

LA INDUSTRIA DE LOS SERVICIOS PÚBLICOS ESTÁ
evolucionando rápidamente en respuesta a la creciente presión pública por una electricidad más limpia y una energía
global más limpia. Un número creciente de países como
Dinamarca, estados como Hawái y California, y empresas
de servicios públicos como American Electric Power y Xcel
Energy tienen metas de 100 % de energías renovables o 100
% de emisiones libres de carbono. Las tecnologías renovables incluyen energía eólica, solar, geotérmica, biomasa,
hidroeléctrica y otras; las tecnologías libres de carbono
generalmente incluyen energías renovables, captura y almacenamiento de carbono y energía nuclear.
La energía eólica y solar fotovoltaica (FV) dominan las
adiciones de energía renovable en todo el mundo y, en 2018,
representaron el 84 % de toda la nueva capacidad renovable
instalada. La energía eólica y la energía FV pueden crear
dos desafíos clave para las empresas de servicios públicos.
En primer lugar, son fuentes de energía variable (VER, por
sus siglas en inglés), que pueden hacer que el equilibrio del
sistema sea más desafiante. Existen muchas opciones de miIdentificador de Objeto Digital 10.1109/MPE.2019.2930855
Fecha de la versión actual: 18 de octubre de 2019

26

ieee power & energy magazine

tigación para gestionar
niveles moderados de
VER, incluyendo pronósticos mejorados, más interconexiones con otras regiones
para suavizar los perfiles eólicos/solares/de demanda, intervalos de suministro más rápidos, capacidad y operación más
flexibles de la combinación global de generadores, medidas
de respuesta a la demanda y almacenamiento de energía. Los
niveles de VER muy altos pueden requerir flexibilidad de
otros sectores de energía, como el transporte o la calefacción, tal como se detalla en el artículo "Flexibilidad de la
integración de los sistemas energéticos" en esta edición.
En segundo lugar, la tecnología eólica, la energía FV y
el almacenamiento de energía por baterías son fuentes basadas en inversores (IBR, por sus siglas en inglés). Incluso un
nivel moderado de generación de energía eólica y FV todos
los años puede conducir a altas penetraciones instantáneas,
lo que puede resultar un desafío de muchas maneras. La disminución de la inercia del sistema, la menor resistencia a cortocircuitos, el comportamiento ante fallas de los inversores y
otros factores son motivo de preocupación a medida que las
máquinas síncronas continúan siendo reemplazadas por las

1540-7977/19©2019IEEE

noviembre/diciembre 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover4
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