IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 29

La restricción puede establecerse por varias razones, incluida la
congestión de la transmisión, la provisión de reservas de regulación
negativa y el equilibrio del sistema durante los periodos de exceso
de suministro.

de gas como condensador síncrono. Todos ellos comparten un enfoque práctico basado en usos innovadores de la
infraestructura existente; la voluntad de desarrollar nuevos
servicios de mercado, incentivos o acuerdos contractuales; la
aplicación de estudios detallados y una buena planificación;
y una predisposición para adoptar nuevas prácticas.

Capacidad de almacenamiento y de
condensadores síncronos en Kauai

KIUC y SolarCity (ahora Tesla) para una batería combinada
de 13 MW FV y 13 MW/52 MWh, que se puso en funcionamiento en mayo de 2017.
La demanda máxima diaria de KIUC se produce aproximadamente una hora después del atardecer. Para equilibrar
los altos niveles de penetración solar, KIUC utiliza generadores térmicos, sistemas dedicados de almacenamiento de
energía por baterías, plantas de almacenamiento de energía
FV y algoritmos de control desarrollados internamente.
KIUC generalmente posee reservas de contingencia equivalentes al 50 % de la producción en tiempo real de plantas FV
no respaldadas por almacenamiento. La generación fósil en
línea está siendo reemplazada cada vez más por el almacenamiento por baterías para la provisión de reservas en funcionamiento. KIUC tiene amplias unidades de inicio rápido.
Sin embargo, si aún no están en línea, no pueden iniciar lo
suficientemente rápido como para responder a eventos en la
nube. Una distribución típica al mediodía para los días muy

12:00:00 a.m.
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Generación (MW)

KIUC es el único proveedor de servicios eléctricos en la
isla de Kauai en Hawái. A diferencia de las otras regiones
mencionadas en este artículo, Kauai no tiene interconexión
con sus vecinos, por lo que llegar a un equilibrio de la oferta
y la demanda es extremadamente difícil. KIUC ha sido
durante mucho tiempo un líder en integración solar, con
96 MW (nominales) de energía FV a fines de 2018. Esto es
significativo para una isla con una demanda de mediodía
de 55-65 MW. ¿Cómo transformó KIUC una combinación
de fuentes que contaba con un 92
% de petróleo en 2010 en el sistema actual?
80
Dado que la capacidad de
Promedio de energía hidro. Promedio de energía bio.
la energía FV aumentó, KIUC
70
Promedio de energía petr.
Promedio de energía sol.
redujo los niveles mínimos de
generación en sus generadores tér60
micos del 50 % al 25 %, y luego al
10 %. Con esto, se consiguió más
50
flexibilidad para integrar la producción de energía FV durante el
40
mediodía y se mejoró la capacidad
30
de las reservas en funcionamiento
del generador térmico para ges20
tionar los efectos de la repentina
cubierta de nubes y el aumento
10
de la demanda por la tarde hasta
alcanzar la demanda máxima
0
nocturna. Sin embargo, el crecimiento continuo de la energía FV
agotó esta flexibilidad, y KIUC
se dio cuenta de que se necesitaría almacenamiento o cambio de
Hora
carga para incluir futuras instalaciones de VER. Esto llevó al pri- gráfico 3. Suministro del sistema KIUC el 24 de febrero de 2019 con una operamer acuerdo de compra de ener- ción de energías renovables en un 100 %. Amarillo: FV (solar); gris: petróleo; verde:
gía de almacenamiento FV entre biomasa (Bio); azul: hidroeléctrico.
noviembre/diciembre 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

29



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 4
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover4
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