IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 42

Es extremadamente desafiante y costoso satisfacer las necesidades
cambiantes del BPS mejorando retroactivamente equipos que fueron
instalados con requerimientos y capacidades de rendimiento mínimos.
✔ El tamaño del almacenamiento necesario para mitigar

los problemas de confiabilidad depende de la cantidad
de FED tradicionales instaladas.
✔ Un mayor número de reservas en funcionamiento podría reducir el tamaño del almacenamiento necesario,
pero no eliminar la necesidad de contar con él. El aumento de las reservas también exacerba las preocupaciones por el exceso de energía. Los sistemas de protección de FVD no se implementan de manera consistente,
y es vital realizar estudios de sensibilidad en torno a
la incertidumbre de este comportamiento de las FED.
Según los estudios, un BESS con 18 MW de capacidad y
una duración de 30 minutos pudo detener las excursiones de
frecuencia y proporcionar el tiempo suficiente para poner en
línea la generación de reserva. El aumento de la duración a
1 h permitió que el BESS respondiera a condiciones de sobre
frecuencia. Los estudios mostraron que dos BESS separados
de manera geográfica y eléctrica entre sí proporcionaron el
mejor rendimiento y la mejor resiliencia de la red.

Alivio de carga por subfrecuencia
La operación confiable de los sistemas de la isla de Hawái
se apoya enormemente en el alivio de carga por subfrecuen-

60.290

cia (UFLS, por sus siglas en inglés) que dispara los circuitos de distribución a umbrales de frecuencia preestablecidos. Sin embargo, a medida que la penetración de las FED
aumenta rápidamente, la variabilidad en la carga neta en
cualquier alimentador plantea desafíos significativos para
el diseño convencional del UFLS, lo que significa que el
armado estático del UFLS ya no es efectivo. Se implementó
un programa de UFLS adaptativo para abordar esta variabilidad. El gráfico 2 es un tablero del programa adaptativo,
el cual incluye seis etapas instantáneas de carga de UFLS
entre 59.1 y 57.6 Hz y dos etapas accionadoras que operan
con demoras a 59.3 y 59.5 Hz. El valor del megavatio objetivo se calcula en función de la carga neta del sistema en
ese momento, y los circuitos de distribución disponibles se
cargan automáticamente cada 15 minutos para alcanzar el
nivel de carga neta objetivo. Se representa un porcentaje y
un valor de tolerancia de la carga, así como también la diferencia entre la carga de megavatios disponible y el valor de
megavatios objetivo. Las etapas 1-2 suman un 15 % y las
etapas 1-4 suman un 40 % de la carga neta del sistema en
función del máximo alivio de carga permitido para disparos
de las unidades N-1 y N-1-1, respectivamente. Cada etapa
opera con un tiempo de relé de ocho ciclos más el tiempo de

60.24 Hz
43:33.7

Disparo de la unidad de vapor
60.00 Hz
43:09.4

60.090
59.890

Un disparo de un tren
de la unidad de ciclo
de tren dual
59.34 Hz
43:19.3

59.690
59.50 Hz
59.490 43:10.9
59.30 Hz
43:11.8
59.290

59.085 Hz
43:29.8
Accionador 1 y 2

59.13 Hz
43:14.2

58.890

.
p.
m

.
7:

43

:3

6

p.
m

.
7:

43

:3

4

p.
m

.
43

:3

2

p.
m

.
7:

43

:3

0

p.
m

.
7:

43

:2

8

p.
m

.
7:

43

:2

6

p.
m

.
4
:2
43
7:

7:

43

:2

2

p.
m

.
p.
m

.
7:

43

:2

0

p.
m

.
7:

43

:1

8

p.
m

.
7:

43

:1

6

p.
m

.
7:

43

:1

4

p.
m

.
2
:1
43
7:

0

p.
m

.
:1

8

p.
m
43
7:

:0
43
7:

58.76 Hz
43:23.0

Etapa 1 y 2

58.690

7:

59.090

gráfico 3. La operación de UFLS adaptativo para un evento de contingencia múltiple.
42

ieee power & energy magazine

noviembre/diciembre 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover4
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