IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 43

Perfil de carga máxima diurna del área PG&E 2018
25,000
Turno
máximo de 1 h
20,000
Carga (MW)

operación del disyuntor. También se incluyó un elemento de
alivio de carga de la tasa de cambio de frecuencia (ROCOF,
por sus siglas en inglés) en las etapas 1 y 2, con un punto de
ajuste de 0.5 Hz/s y un tiempo de relé de nueve ciclos más
tiempo de operación del disyuntor.
Se modificaron más de 40 subestaciones, lo cual incluye
actualizaciones de relés y comunicación, y el 78 % de los
circuitos de los clientes (hasta el 70 % de la carga máxima)
están participando. El programa adaptativo de UFLS ha funcionado bien durante los eventos de N-1 y N-1-1 en diversos
momentos del día y es una mejora efectiva de la confiabilidad. El gráfico 3 proporciona un ejemplo de una perturbación
severa de pérdida de generador N-1-1, donde las etapas 1-4
operaron con éxito para detener la frecuencia y mitigar una
posible interrupción a gran escala.

15,000
10,000
5,000
-

2

4

6

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Hora de fin
(a)

Carga (MW)

Perfil de carga máxima diurna del área PG&E 2018
25,000
Turno
máximo de 2 h
20,000

Implementación de energía
solar FV en los tejados

15,000
10,000
5,000

California tiene un mandato estatal que indica que el 33
% de su energía anual debe provenir de fuentes renovables
hacia 2020, con un objetivo del 60 % para 2030, establecido
por un proyecto de ley, el SB100, que entró en vigencia en
septiembre de 2018. Sin embargo, en algunos días, la producción instantánea de las fuentes renovables ya supera el 50
% de la producción total. Gran parte de esa penetración consiste en energía FVD particular, y la rápida implementación
de FVD está forzando que haya cambios en la planificación

-

2

4

6

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Hora de fin
(b)

Carga de consumo

Carga gestionada

gráfico 4. Los impactos de carga neta en PG&E provenientes de las FED.

tabla 1. Los escenarios de referencia y las contribuciones de las FED.
Día/Hora
Escenario
Carga
máxima en
verano
Carga
baja en
primavera
Carga
baja en
invierno
Carga
máxima en
invierno

20:20
10 de
agosto
HF 18
5 de abril
HF 12

BTM-FV

20:23
20:28
14 de agosto 14 de agosto
HF 19
HF 19

20:20
18 %

20:23 20:28
3%
3%

20:20
90 %

20:23
81 %

20:28 Impulsor
76 % Hora de carga
máxima gestionada

6 de abril
HF 13

79 %

84 %

58 %

56 %

49 %

Hora de carga
mínima ges tionada

28 %

Hora de consumo
mínimo

72 %

Hora de carga
máxima gestionada
durante el invierno

16 de abril
HF 13
13 de febrero
HF 4

15 de
octubre
HF 19

EEAA

3 de octubre 3 de octubre
HF 18
HF 19

85 %
0%

0%

1%

0%

77 %

76 %

EEAA: eficiencia energética adicional alcanzable; HF: hora final.
tabla 2. Los escenarios de sensibilidad y las contribuciones de las FED.

Escenario
Carga máxima en verano con una alta carga
prevista por la CEC
En horas de carga baja con un gran suministro
de energías renovables y un compromiso
mínimo de generación de gas
En horas de carga máxima en verano con un
gran suministro de energías renovables y un
compromiso mínimo de generación de gas
noviembre/diciembre 2019

Caso de referencia de
inicio
20:23 carga máxima
en verano
20:23 carga baja
20:20 carga máxima
en verano

BTM-FV

EEAA

Referencia
3%

Sensibilidad
3%

Referencia Sensibilidad
81 %
0%

84 %

99 %

56 %

56 %

18 %

99 %

81 %

81 %

ieee power & energy magazine

43



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 5
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover4
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