IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 79

Los pronósticos de carga para los sistemas con altas penetraciones
de energías renovables particulares pueden ser susceptibles a un
mayor error, especialmente cuando los prosumidores optimizan su
propio consumo.

En resumen: desafíos para los sistemas
con una alta proporción de energías
renovables variables
Reducir las emisiones en el sector eléctrico con frecuencia comienza al reemplazar las plantas de energía fósil por
energías renovables variables (VRE, por sus siglas en inglés).
Aumentar la participación de las VRE en el suministro de
energía desafía a los sistemas de energía, especialmente
cuando esta participación es muy grande. En el transcurso de
cada día, los sistemas con más del 50-70 % de la demanda

No CO2 otro
No CO2 agricultura
Residencial
Terciario
Transporte
Industria
Energía
Tecnologías de
eliminación del carbono
LULUCF
Emisiones netas

5,000
4,000

MtCO2eq

de electricidad cubierta por VRE (dependiendo del sistema)
experimentan una creciente necesidad de flexibilidad operativa para equilibrar la variabilidad de la producción con la
demanda. Además, la VRE a menudo expulsa a las centrales
térmicas del mercado debido al bajo costo marginal de las
fuentes eólicas y solares. Tradicionalmente, estas centrales
térmicas brindan importantes servicios al sistema y una flexibilidad operativa crucial que luego debe ser suministrada
a través de otros medios, como diseños y productos de mercado mejorados tanto del lado de la generación como de la
demanda para garantizar que existan suficientes mecanismos
de equilibrio. Estos mecanismos de equilibrio pueden ser
suministrados a través de diversos medios a diferentes niveles de tensión y con tiempos de ejecución muy diferentes, por
ejemplo, construyendo sistemas fuertes de transmisión de alta
tensión mediante el uso de redes/microrredes inteligentes y un
almacenamiento a tensiones más bajas y acciones operativas
como pronósticos precisos y gestión del lado de la demanda.
Los desafíos para los sistemas eléctricos dominados por
una gran proporción de VRE eólicas y solares se pueden
describir de la siguiente manera:
✔ Requerimientos de regulación y reservas: Debido a que
el suministro de VRE tiene el potencial de conllevar

3,000
2,000
1,000

Caminos de cero GEI diferentes
llevan a diferentes niveles de
emisiones remanentes y
absorción de las emisiones de GEI

MtCO2eq

calentamiento de agua y cocina), la industria, el transporte y
la agricultura. Se prioriza la electricidad porque las estrategias para descarbonizar otros sectores con frecuencia dependen de la electrificación con fuentes de electricidad de baja
emisión. Por ejemplo, la calefacción de espacios y calentamiento de agua pueden electrificarse de manera eficiente
mediante bombas de calor y su traslado mediante vehículos
eléctricos o de celdas de combustible de hidrógeno. Algunas
ramas de la industria, como la producción de amoníaco o la
reducción directa de mineral de hierro, también pueden ser
electrificadas indirectamente con hidrógeno producido por
electrolización del agua.

0
2005

2010

2015

2020

2025 2030
Año

2035

2040

2045

2050

gráfico 3. El camino para las emisiones sectoriales de GEI en los escenarios de 1.5 °C de la Comisión Europea. LULUCF:
uso del territorio, cambio en el uso del territorio y silvicultura. (Fuente: Comunicación de la Comisión Europea, "A Clean
Planet for All" (Un planeta limpio para todos), 2018; utilizado con permiso).
noviembre/diciembre 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

79



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 4
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover4
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