IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 85

Dado que la cogeneración puede proporcionar servicios
auxiliares al sistema eléctrico además de proporcionar calor,
esta reemplazaría a una planta de turbinas de gas de ciclo
combinado en el sistema integrado, lo cual ahorraría en costos de combustible. Una mayor penetración de cogeneración
deriva en una reducida capacidad de las bombas de calor de
la red industrial y, en consecuencia, reduce la necesidad de
reforzar las redes de distribución de alta tensión.
Una descarbonización más profunda del sistema de
calefacción del Reino Unido necesitará una electrificación
importante. Sin embargo, existen preocupaciones relacionadas con las implicancias para la infraestructura eléctrica,
la operación del sistema y la seguridad. Para evitar grandes

de calefacción y la electricidad pueden brindar una flexibilidad de recursos de vectores de energía cruzada.
Los estudios que utilizan el futuro escenario energético
del Reino Unido con una alta penetración de FED demuestran que los costos de inversión y operación de un sistema
de calefacción y electricidad no integrados son más altos
que cuando ambos están integrados. Los beneficios netos
de la operación coordinada de los sistemas de calefacción
y electricidad son de entre £ 2,400 y £ 5,400 millones al
año para el escenario con un objetivo de carbono de 100 o
50 gCO 2 /kWh, respectivamente. Cuanto más estricto sea el
objetivo de carbono, mayor será el valor de la flexibilidad de
los recursos.

Operación a un precio de energía bajo/medio (por ejemplo, 6,000-7,000 h/año)
(FER) EL (mínimo/espera en caliente)
p. ej., (servicios auxiliares)

Procesos centrales

(FER) EL

* Electrólisis (Máximo)
* Gasificación térmica
* Turbina de gas/vapor
* Calor de proceso de alta temperatura

Biomasa

Calor
de alta
temperatura

H2

Biomasa
Bio/Electrocombustible, p.ej., metano
Posibles acoplamientos
de infraestructura en grupos

CO2

Operación con un precio de energía alto (p.ej., 1,000-2,000 h/año)
Procesos centrales
Biomasa

(FER) EL (producción máxima),
p.ej., (carga máxima)

* Electrólisis (Máximo)
* Gasificación térmica
* Turbina de gas/vapor
* Calor de proceso de alta temperatura

Gas (FER)

Biomasa
Bio/electrocombustible, p.ej., metano

(a)
Simulación de la operación de la planta
80

1,000

64

Precio

600

48

400

32

200

16

Energía

0

0
-16

Parque solar (FV) de 150-MW
Planta de energía (tipo 3) de 140/140-MW

ay
o
de

m

ay
o
4

3

de

m

ay
o
m
de

2

1

de

m

ay
o

ab
ril

30

de

ab
ril

29

de

ab
ril
de

28

de

ab
ril

-200

27

Precio (EUR/MWh)

Energía (MW)

800

Parque eólico marítimo de 850-MW
Precio de la electricidad DK1 (EUR/MWh)

(b)

gráfico 10. El principio de una planta de energía y su operación. EL: electricidad. (Fuente: Energinet; utilizado con permiso).
noviembre/diciembre 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

85



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 6
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 8
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 82
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 86
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 92
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 106
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 113
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 114
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 116
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 117
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 118
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 120
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 122
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 133
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 134
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover4
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