IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 86

Los resultados muestran que los precios promedio de la electricidad
continuarán siendo competitivos y estarán alineados regionalmente,
incluso si toda la región adopta energía verde.
refuerzos, las tecnologías híbridas, como las bombas de
calor híbridas (HHP, por sus siglas en inglés), que combinan
una caldera de gas doméstica con una bomba de calor de
uso final (EHP, por sus siglas en inglés) de fuente aire/tierra,
han despertado un gran interés. Dada su naturaleza híbrida,
las demandas de calefacción de los consumidores pueden ser
satisfechas mediante el consumo gas o electricidad, lo que
implica una capacidad de combustible dual.
El proyecto FREEDOM del Reino Unido ha demostrado
que la tecnología de HHP aún puede alcanzar el potencial
ambiental de un sector de la calefacción completamente
electrificado, pero con importantes ahorros económicos respecto de un camino con EHP independientes. La tecnología híbrida puede reducir de manera significativa los costos
iniciales de construcción y los costos del sistema eléctrico.
Además, la tecnología de HHP puede ahorrar una cantidad
importante de costos del sistema en comparación con el caso
de la EHP independiente (gráfico 8). En un sistema con bajas
emisiones de carbono, estos ahorros brutos pueden oscilar

entre £ 5,800 y £ 9,300 millones/año en los costos totales
del sistema.
La tecnología de HHP necesita un gasto operativo adicional para el sistema de gas, además de un gasto adicional de
capital en una generación baja en emisiones de carbono para
compensar las emisiones de gas mediante la descarbonización de una mayor parte del sistema eléctrico. Estos costos
adicionales se muestran como beneficios negativos en el gráfico 8. En vista de estos cálculos, los beneficios netos restantes del sistema de tecnología de HHP se encuentran entre
£ 4,900 y £ 7,400 millones/año. Los beneficios de la HHP
sobre la EHP son menores en un sistema altamente flexible,
ya que la flexibilidad operativa de la HHP compite con otras
fuentes de flexibilidad, como las cargas controlables (es
decir, cargas industriales y comerciales, VE y dispositivos
inteligentes) y el almacenamiento de electricidad.
Tanto las HHP como las EHP pueden ofrecer muchos
servicios de demanda y respuesta al sistema eléctrico
valiosos y flexibles. Por ejemplo, el precalentamiento, que

Participación
de FER

Precio promedio de
electricidad (DKK/MWh)

0-30 %
30-40 %
40-50 %
50-60 %
60-70 %
70-80 %
80-90 %
90-100 %

< 300
300-320
320-340
340-360
360-380
380-400
> 400

Precios promedio de electricidad
(a)

Participación de FER
(b)

gráfico 11. (a) los precios promedio y (b) la participación de FER de Europa en 2040 de acuerdo con la proyección del
Plan de desarrollo de la red a diez años de ENTSO-E 2018. (Fuente: Energinet con información del Escenario para 2040
"Sustainable Transition" de ENTSO-E; utilizado con permiso.)
86

ieee power & energy magazine

noviembre/diciembre 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 9
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - 134
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November 2019 - Cover4
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