Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 62

the moving target may get hit by the
front, middle or end of the pattern, as
it travels through the air.
The full choke is the tightest with
about a .035-inch constriction and at
40 yards will throw about a 75 percent
of its shot content inside of a 30-inch
circle. The effective range of its pattern is around 45 yards. The modified
choke is a little more open with a .020
constriction and will throw around
a 60 percent pattern, and is effective
out to about 35 yards. Next is the improved cylinder, which has a .010-inch
constriction that throws a 50 percent
pattern and its effectiveness is about
25 yards. The last is skeet and it has
a .005-inch of constriction and will
throw around a 45 percent pattern,
which allows its effective pattern out
to about 20 yards.
Most hunters (beginners or veteran)
will do best with the improved cylinder
choke. It allows plenty of room for error because most upland game is shot
within 30 yards. Later in the season,
when the birds get spooky and flush
farther out, a modified choke works
well. The most popular double barreled shotguns will have an improved
and a modified choke, for that follow
up on the missed first shot, or a far
flush. The full choke is normally used
for long-range pass shooting, or those
long agricultural fields where the birds
have really smartened up and flush
on any provocation. It also is used for
turkeys to keep a tight pattern on the
head/neck area.
Until the 1970s, all shotgun barrels
were bored with specific chokes, so the
hunter had to either shoot within the
limits of the choke, or own a couple
of shotguns with different chokes. Today, most shotguns barrels are made a
62

little thicker to accept interchangeable
screw-in chokes that can be changed
to meet a hunter's needs. There also
are choke tubes made specifically for
today's non-toxic shot which is harder
than lead, so you don't have to leave
your favorite shotgun at home.
One last thing about patterns is
that as compared to lead, since the
steel/non-toxic shot is harder and deforms less, velocity is more consistent
throughout the pattern. Therefore
it throws a shorter/narrower column
allowing more pellets per cubic area.
But because the pattern is shorter, your
aiming - I mean pointing - has to be
more exact.
Barrels and Beads
Shotgun barrels are called smooth
bores and rightfully so, because that is
exactly what they need to be for wing
shooting. If they were rifled, the wad
full of shot would spin and the column
of shot would quickly be forced outward
from the center once leaving the barrel because of the centrifugal force,
creating a very unreliable, ineffective
pattern.
Shotgun barrels usually range from
24 to 34 inches and the reason for the
variety of length is for a longer sighting
radius or gun balance, not more power.
Gun powder for a shotgun is burned up
within the first 12 inches of a barrel,
so a 26-inch, full-choked barrel will
deliver the same pattern and power as
a 34-inch, full-choked barrel (using the
same ammunition).
Sporting clays and trap competitors
and/or hunters who chase birds in long
agricultural fields will usually go with
the longer barrels because they have
a longer sight radius or may swing
better. Grouse hunters find that the
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Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013

Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - Cover1
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - Cover2
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 2
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 3
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 4
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 5
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 6
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 7
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 8
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 9
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 10
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 11
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 12
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 13
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 14
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 15
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 16
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 17
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 18
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 19
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 20
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 21
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 22
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 23
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 24
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 25
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 26
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 27
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 28
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 29
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 30
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 31
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 32
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 33
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 34
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 35
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 36
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 37
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 38
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 39
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 40
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 41
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 42
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 43
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 44
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 45
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 46
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 47
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 48
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 49
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 50
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 51
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 52
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 53
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 54
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 55
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 56
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 57
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 58
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 59
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 60
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 61
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 62
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 63
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - 64
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - BB1
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - BB2
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - Cover3
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2013 - Cover4
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