Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 54

must transfer pollen from staminate
(male) to pistillate (female) flowers,
a period of rain might disrupt the process, too.
For instance, a cold, wet spring in
2012 affected red-oak production in
2013 because all the oaks in the redoak group (those with pointed lobes on
their leaves) take two years to mature.
Those in the white-oak group (those
with smooth lobes on their leaves) take
only a year and would be affected by
a late spring frost during pollination.
Along with those who point to temperatures or rain, still others believe that
synchrony occurs as a way to outsmart
nut predators by producing more acorns
than the predators can eat, ensuring that
at least some nuts will grow into trees.
But whatever the causes, it is cyclic and
occurs every three to five years.

Hard Mast

On our dry mountaintop, the whiteoak group comprises mostly chestnut
oaks, with an occasional white oak.
Deer prefer these tastier acorns and
squirrels eat them almost immediately,
because they spoil more quickly than
those in the red-oak group, which
include scrub, black, northern red and
scarlet oaks here. Those acorns, the
squirrels store.
Acorns are not the only hard-mast
fruit.
Others include the squirrels' favorite - hickories, especially pignut,
mockernut and shagbark. Hickories
consist of 10 to 25 percent of squirrels'
diets in a good year, and they ripen
before acorns.
But like oaks, as well as the other
hard-mast producers - American beeches and black walnuts - they also are
wind-pollinated.
54

Soft Mast

Hard mast is high in fat, carbohydrates and protein, and is important to at
least 180 species of birds and animals in
fall and winter, but because it is highly
variable in production from year to
year, wildlife also must depend on a
wide variety of soft mast throughout
spring, summer and fall.
These fleshy, perishable fruits high
in sugar, vitamins and carbohydrates
include a wide variety of native trees,
shrubs and woody vine species.
A wide variety of soft mast allows
many mammals and birds to survive
the lean years of hard mast. Of course,
there are always some nuts every year.
But ever since chestnut blight started
affecting the American chestnut and
essentially eliminated it as a food
source, wildlife has had to adjust to a
feast or near-famine hard-mast situation. Because American Chestnut is
insect-pollinated and didn't bloom until



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015

Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - Intro
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - Cover1
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - Cover2
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 2
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 3
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 4
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 5
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 6
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 7
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 8
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 9
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 10
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 11
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 12
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 13
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 14
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 15
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 16
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 17
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 18
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 19
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 20
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 21
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 22
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 23
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 24
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 25
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 26
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 27
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 28
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 29
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 30
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 31
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 32
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 33
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 34
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 35
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 36
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 37
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 38
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 39
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 40
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 41
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 42
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 43
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 44
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 45
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 46
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 47
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 48
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 49
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 50
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 51
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 52
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 53
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 54
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 55
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 56
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 57
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 58
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 59
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 60
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 61
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 62
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 63
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - 64
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - BB1
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - BB2
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - Cover3
Pennsylvania Game News - September 2015 - Cover4
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