Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 54

eggs, spotted or blotched with gray, reddish-brown, lilac, or black. They incubate
the eggs 12 days, and their nestlings are
totally helpless when they hatch.
But they grow amazingly fast.
While they might fledge at eight days
by climbing over the edge of their nests
and moving into heavy vegetation, most
fledge later, at about 12 days.
Both parents feed the fledglings for
three weeks, while they strengthen their
wings and move into nearby woods or
thickets.
In Pennsylvania, yellowthroats are
a forest-edge species and nest building
begins the first week in May. Atlas observers reported seeing young through July,
which suggests that they have two broods.
Yellowthroats are wholly insectivorous, eating beetles, grubs, the larvae and
adults of moths and butterflies, flies, ants,
spiders, plant lice, leaf hoppers and leaf
rollers. They glean food for themselves
54

and their young from the ground or
shrubbery.
As long ago as 1907 in Massachusetts, E.H. Forbush watched a male
yellowthroat eat 52 gypsy-moth
larvae before flying away. He
concluded the bird was an
efficient enemy of the pest.
Forbush also saw a yellowthroat eat 89 aphids in a minute.
Another researcher found yellowthroats consumed large numbers
of cankerworms in orchards.
Both eggs and nestlings are preyed on,
probably by snakes, mice, chipmunks,
skunks, opossums and raccoons. Adults
occasionally are caught by loggerhead
shrikes, merlins, American kestrels
and northern harriers.
But the parasitizing of their
nests by brown-headed cowbirds might
be the greatest threat to yellowthroats.
One study, of 20 nests with cowbird eggs,
found that only three produced young
yellowthroats.
On the other hand, some yellowthroats
seem to recognize cowbird eggs or notice
that their own eggs have been removed
and replaced by those of cowbirds, and
they build a second nest or even a third
one on top of the parasitized nest.
By the third week of August, some yellowthroats in Pennsylvania start their migration south, although the peak is during
the second and third weeks of September.
Flying through the night, adults and
immature birds together, head for the
Caribbean islands or Central America,
all the way to Panama, seeking the same
shrubby vegetation to spend the winter.
However, at least those wintering in
Quintana Roo, Mexico are segregated
based on gender, with males preferring



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016

Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - Intro
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - Cover1
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - Cover2
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 2
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 3
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 4
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 5
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 6
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 7
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 8
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 9
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 10
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 11
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 12
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 13
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 14
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 15
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 16
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 17
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 18
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 19
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 20
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 21
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 22
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 23
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 24
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 25
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 26
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 27
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 28
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 29
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 30
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 31
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 32
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 33
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 34
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 35
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 36
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 37
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 38
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 39
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 40
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 41
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 42
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 43
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 44
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 45
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 46
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 47
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 48
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 49
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 50
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 51
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 52
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 53
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 54
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 55
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 56
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 57
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 58
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 59
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 60
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 61
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 62
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 63
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - 64
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - Cover3
Pennsylvania Game News - May 2016 - Cover4
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