Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 57

lined with grasses, with the ground nests
well-hidden by grasses, sedges or sphagnum moss.
The female lays two to four olivebrown eggs and incubates them for 18 to
20 days. Twenty-four hours before they
hatch, the chicks begin peeping, and the
female responds by straddling the nest and
clucking softly.
Covered with down that dries within
an hour, the chicks climb on the female's
back or wander away on their long legs
and huge feet.
The male usually takes the first two
hatched chicks and the female the second
two, leading them to wet areas where the
adults feed the young bill-to-bill.
At 6 days old, the young peck at food
and probe for it. They become proficient
feeders at 10 days old, though the parents
continue to feed them for as long as two
months more, according to researcher
K.A. Arnold, writing in 1994.
Mostly the young eat the larvae of
crane, horse and deer flies, beetles, dragonflies, crickets, grasshoppers and ants,
as well as snails, crustaceans and worms,
using sensory pits near the flexible tips of
their bills to find prey by touch.
When feeding, their entire bills - and
sometimes their foreheads, as well - are
underwater.
The earth colors of Wilson's snipe
provide them with camouflage, so
they only flush at the last minute
when confronted by a predator.
Females at nests and parents
with young also employ distraction
displays - fluttering up from the ground
and falling back, spinning and fluttering
around; and falling on their sides or lying
on their breasts and beating their wings.
Although there has been no obserJ A N U A R Y 2 0 1 7

vation of egg or chick predation, great
horned owls, peregrine falcons, merlins,
northern goshawks, Cooper's hawks
and, especially, northern harriers prey
on adults.
Wilson's snipe begin their migration
south as early as mid-July in Pennsylvania, and might not reach their destination
until November if heading as far south as
Venezuela.
Juveniles leave first, followed by
females, then males.
They don't always remain in one place.
For instance, numbers of snipe in Venezuela increase in January and February at
the same time they decrease in southern
Louisiana. Apparently, they move in
search of food, especially if their chosen
spots have dried out.
Between the first and second Pennsylvania Breeding Bird atlases, Wilson's
snipe numbers decreased by 10 percent.
And because they are so dependent on
wetlands throughout the year, they have
been selected as a Species of Maintenance
Concern in Pennsylvania.
But if researchers are right, and at least
40 percent of Wilson's snipe return to the
same wintering grounds each year, I can
look forward to seeing them this winter,
and for more to follow, so long as the
habitat remains unchanged where we've
found them.

Killdeer

5 7



Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017

Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - Intro
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - Cover1
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - Cover2
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 2
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 3
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 4
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 5
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 6
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 7
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 8
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 9
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 10
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 11
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 12
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 13
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 14
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 15
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 16
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 17
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 18
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 19
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 20
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 21
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 22
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 23
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 24
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 25
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 26
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 27
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 28
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 29
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 30
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 31
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 32
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 33
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 34
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 35
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 36
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 37
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 38
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 39
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 40
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 41
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 42
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 43
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 44
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 45
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 46
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 47
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 48
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 49
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 50
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 51
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 52
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 53
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 54
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 55
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 56
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 57
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 58
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 59
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 60
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 61
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 65
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 63
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - 64
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - Cover3
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2017 - Cover4
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