# Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 16

```ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Darren Cummings is an engineer with a Fortune 500
company that builds and services diesel engines and
related products. Darren also is an avid outdoorsman,
who always is looking to use his skills, and the latest
science, to improve hunters' strategies and techniques.

which will try to pull it toward the center
of the earth. The second is air resistance,
which will slow the bolt and remove some
of its precious energy.
First, let's look at gravity. Gravity
can be cruel to a speeding bolt; not only
does it cause an object to fall, it actually
causes the object to fall faster and faster
the longer the object is in the air.
As an example, if we ignore air resistance, gravity will cause an object to
drop about 16 feet after free falling for
one second, but in the next second it will
have fallen 64 feet - or another 48 feet!
Meanwhile, air resistance slows your
bolt down, causing it to stay in flight
longer - and the longer your bolt is in
flight the longer gravity has to do its job
of pulling your bolt to the ground.
If you've ever been driving down the
moved your hand from horizontal position - like an airplane wing - to upright
- like you're telling someone to stop
- you've felt the force of air resistance,
also called drag.
At short distances, relative to the speed
of the projectile, drag can be disregarded.
However, when a bolt travels around
125 yards per second (375 fps) drag
likely is significant, especially at longer
shooting distances. This also means, the
faster the crossbow, the more the bolt will
slow down because drag simply is how
slippery the projectile is, multiplied by
how much area is working against the
16

air, multiplied by the velocity squared.
Because the velocity is squared, it means
a small increase in velocity can have a
great increase on drag.
What does this mean for shooting
targets at different distances?
Taking into account both gravity and
drag, a 450-grain bolt moving at 375 fps
will have dropped more than 15 feet by
the time it reaches the 100-yard target,
meaning the shooter would need to aim
at a point 15 feet above the target! At 50
yards, the bolt will have dropped nearly
3 feet. At 25 yards, the bolt will have
In all of these scenarios, it's important
to remember the bolt's arching trajectory.
Even at 50 yards, you need to be certain
there are no branches or obstructions
within a 3-foot window above your
aiming point. Otherwise, the shot will be
thrown off it's mark.
But considering drop also is important because it might be more rare than
common to range an animal, and still
have it standing in the same spot by the
time you can shoot. If you range a deer
at 30 yards, and it takes a few steps to 35
yards, your bolt will experience an additional 4 inches of drop, meaning you will
hit 4 inches below your 30-yard aiming
point. If you range a deer at 95 yards and
it moves to 100 yards, your arrow will
drop more than 21 additional inches in
Errors in ranging become far more
costly as the animal moves farther away.
Want to see for yourself? Shoot a target
at 30 yards with your 20-yard pin. You'll
miss low, but most likely will hit the
target. Then shoot a target at 40 yards
with your 30-yard pin. Be sure to have a
large target and a safe backstop. You just
might find when you move back to 40

```

# Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019

Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - Cover1
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - Cover2
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 2
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 3
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 4
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 5
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 6
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 7
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 8
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 9
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 10
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 11
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 12
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 13
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 14
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 15
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 16
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 17
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 18
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 19
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 20
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 21
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 22
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 23
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 24
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 25
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 26
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 27
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 28
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 29
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 30
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 31
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 32
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 33
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 34
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 35
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 36
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 37
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 38
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 39
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 40
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 41
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 42
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 43
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 44
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 45
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 46
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 47
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 48
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 49
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 50
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 51
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 52
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 53
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 54
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 55
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 56
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 57
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 58
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 59
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 60
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 61
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 62
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 63
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - 64
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - Cover3
Pennsylvania Game News - October 2019 - Cover4
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