Momentum - November 2019 - 15

STUDENT
GENERATION

LOW-SPEED CONTROLLED FLIGHT
TOP OF MIND FOR CAL STATE
NORTHRIDGE TEAM

AT CAL STATE UNIVERSITY-NORTHRIDGE, CSUN Aeronautics is a senior
design project that requires students to design a plane with their team,
rather than build off the design from the year before.
The 2018-2019 CSUN Aeronautics team, of which I was part, built an
aircraft around the principle of low-speed controlled flight. The wings
were the first component to be designed, and a selig 1210 airfoil was
selected for its large drag bucket, the region where the coefficient of lift
(cl) has the smallest coefficient of drag (cd), large lift-to-drag ratio, and
gentle stall drop off.
The span was iterated and was designed to be 10 feet long with a 0.5
taper ratio for maximum Oswald efficiency and reduced induced drag
at the wing tips. These dimensions yield a planform area of 15.5 ft and
aspect ratio of 6.69.
The tail was designed to stabilize the aircraft in flight. Both vertical
and horizontal airfoils had to be symmetrical in order to be able to
correct for pitch and yaw factors, caused by the aerodynamic forces,
in both the positive and negative rotational directions. The airfoils
were the NACA 0009 and 0012H for the vertical and horizontal tails,
respectively.
The fuselage had a circular cross section with a flat bottom. The main
factors that contributed to the design of the fuse were aerodynamics-
more specifically, drag-and payload space. Using an estimate of
predicted cargo to be dropped, the final design cross section had a
diameter of 10 in, parabolic nose cone, and tapered tail cone.
Assembly was, again, selected based on aircraft performance and
also manufacturability/assembly. The wings were designed to be
high-mounted for aerodynamic performance and the tail to be the
conventional configuration for ease of manufacturing and assembly. The
landing gear was a "tricycle style" for taxi and loading during landing.
Much of the aircraft was designed with carbon fiber due to its high
strength-to-weight ratio and was analyzed with the Tsai-Hill failure
criteria for a conservative stress analysis yielding values less than 1
to signify that each layer of composite would not fail under loading.
The wings and tails were made out of EPS (expanded polystyrene) II
foam reinforced with strips of e-glass at critical areas. The skeleton
consists of a combination of aluminum and carbon-fiber bulkheads and
aluminum longerons.
All loads were exported from CFD (computational fluid dynamics)
simulations of each component of the aircraft during maximum
designed flight speeds. The fuse was analyzed with the Von Mises failure
criteria, and the wings and tail were analyzed with the Coulomb-Mohr
failure criteria. The factors of safety were no less than 1.3.
For avionics, our engine produced around 8 to 9 lbs of thrust with the
750-W required power watt limiter. Forces on the control surfaces were
calculated at maximum designed flight speed, and servos for each control
surface were selected for the required torque at maximum deflection.

MOMENTUM

The CSUN Aeronautics plane ready for takeoff.

A technical drawing submitted by CSUN Aeronautics for the SAE
Aero Design West 2019 competition. The team finished fourth in the
Design Event.
Three different batteries were used to operate
the aircraft, 6-cell for the propulsion, 3-cell for the
controls, and 2-cell for the data-acquisition system,
which includes the FPV (first person view) system and
payload release system.
This article was written for MOMENTUM by Justin Ngo,
co-captain of the 2018-2019 CSUN Aeronautics team
at Cal State University-Northridge, from which he has
graduated with a bachelor's degree in mechanical
engineering. He now works as a research engineer at
Mecanica Scientific Services Corp.

November 2019 15



Momentum - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Momentum - November 2019

Momentum - November 2019
Contents
EDITORIAL
BRIEFS
STUDENT GENERATION
One-on-One – Matt Heywood
Experience and innovation walk hand in hand
Baja SAE 2019: a tale of wind, rain (sleet/ mud), and sunshine
‘Complete, finish, win’
Low-speed controlled flight top of mind for Cal State Northridge team
Big data, big benefits for big machines
Mercedes-Benz EQS concept: the S-Class of electric vehicles?
SAE 101: EDGE Research Reports
New SAE student challenge centers on connected aircraft
Miscellaneous news for SAE Student Members!
Dossier: Steve Rehak of Detroit Flex Defense
What’s next?
Momentum - November 2019 - Momentum - November 2019
Momentum - November 2019 - Cover2
Momentum - November 2019 - Contents
Momentum - November 2019 - EDITORIAL
Momentum - November 2019 - BRIEFS
Momentum - November 2019 - STUDENT GENERATION
Momentum - November 2019 - 5
Momentum - November 2019 - 6
Momentum - November 2019 - One-on-One – Matt Heywood
Momentum - November 2019 - Experience and innovation walk hand in hand
Momentum - November 2019 - 9
Momentum - November 2019 - 10
Momentum - November 2019 - Baja SAE 2019: a tale of wind, rain (sleet/ mud), and sunshine
Momentum - November 2019 - ‘Complete, finish, win’
Momentum - November 2019 - 13
Momentum - November 2019 - 14
Momentum - November 2019 - Low-speed controlled flight top of mind for Cal State Northridge team
Momentum - November 2019 - Big data, big benefits for big machines
Momentum - November 2019 - Mercedes-Benz EQS concept: the S-Class of electric vehicles?
Momentum - November 2019 - SAE 101: EDGE Research Reports
Momentum - November 2019 - New SAE student challenge centers on connected aircraft
Momentum - November 2019 - Miscellaneous news for SAE Student Members!
Momentum - November 2019 - 21
Momentum - November 2019 - Dossier: Steve Rehak of Detroit Flex Defense
Momentum - November 2019 - 23
Momentum - November 2019 - What’s next?
Momentum - November 2019 - Cover3
Momentum - November 2019 - Cover4
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