SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 34

Feature Article
Simple Contours
Following the investigation of surface features on
flat surfaces, building block development efforts
shift focus to ensuring defined process envelopes
can be effectively scaled to larger production
representative parts. Efforts begin with midscale gentle contour parts in order to verify that
parameters and techniques defined in smaller flat
part trials are applicable.
Concave Steering Trials
Concave steering trials, as shown in Figure
5, simulate steered (curved) courses in a barrel
section. "Window blinding" is a common defect
associated with this configuration. Window blinding
occurs when tension across the width of a tow is
not uniform. This causes weakly adhered edges of
the tows to lift up creating a visual effect similar
to a window blind (Figure 6). Increased severity in
the steered course radii and the concave geometry
will exasperate this defect. The threshold for the
onset of window blinding is established by placing
successively more severely steered courses at
increasing speeds. In Figure 5, each of the depicted
courses represents a different radius. The threshold
is expected to be different for each material system.

Figure 6. Window blinding occurring on a concave tool.

Complex Contours
Process parameters used for simple curvatures
are then applied to complex contour demonstrations
to ensure manufacturing techniques and guidelines
are applicable and ready to be used on large scale
parts. The building block development culminates
in manufacturing demonstrations of a series of
complex wing skin articles.
Complex Contour Skins
This phase begins with exploring fiber placement
on complex curvature without any additional surface
features to see if the simple curvature techniques
are valid and address new challenges brought on
by complex curves.
Single Feature Articles
Continuing the building block development,
lessons learned on the complex curvature articles
are advanced to parts containing a single feature,
such as a door joggle interacting with the complex
contour.
Multiple Feature Articles
Following demonstrations on single feature
articles, Lockheed Martin transitions efforts to
multiple features interacting with each other over a
complex contour. These articles incorporate three
surface features typically challenging for AFP: 1)
joggles created by an embedded door, 2) a steered
spar cap, and 3) core inserts. These multi-feature
articles are manufactured on full scale composite
tooling representative of the Polecat unmanned
flight vehicle lower wing skin tooling as shown in
Figure 7.

34

SAMPE Journal, Volume 52, No. 4, July/August 2016


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016

Contents
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover1
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover2
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Contents
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 2
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 3
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 4
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 5
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 6
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 7
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 8
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 9
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 10
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 11
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 12
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SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 14
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SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 16
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 17
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 18
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 19
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 20
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 21
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SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 25
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 26
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 27
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 28
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 29
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 30
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 31
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 32
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 33
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 34
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 35
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 36
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 37
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 38
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 39
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 40
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 41
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SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover3
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover4
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