SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 36

Feature Article

Figure 8. Surface temperature at the
edge of laser zone is shown to drop
to 50% within 2.5 mm.

The laser heated zone was also minimized
substantially along the length of the placed course
as compared to the baseline IR heaters. The
laser optics were shown to provide the desired
temperatures in zones adjacent to the nip point and
about 1 cm in length. This compares to baseline
IR heaters which heat areas as far as 25 cm prior
to the machine's nip point. Focusing the heat in
this way avoids time for the heat to conduct away
from the nip point and through the thickness before
application of pressure at the nip point. The result is
the ability to fiber place at higher temperatures and
higher speeds.
These studies demonstrated a laser heating
system for AFP of OoA composites has the
following benefits: 1) the machine can run at full
speed and meet heating requirements, 2) heat is
delivered at an exact location with even power
distribution, 3) instantaneous on/off response, 4)

less chance for collision with part, 5) closed-loop
control with temperature data logging, 6) reduce
trial and error for new part/material development,
7) rapid retrofit to existing machines possible, and
8) minimal impact to machine controller/software.
As a result of these studies Lockheed Martin is
moving towards implementation of laser heating on
the Ingersoll Mongoose machine.
Optimized Bagging and Cure. Flat panel efforts included
an assessment as to whether net thickness tape,
placed at high heat and compaction levels, would
edge breathe air and volatiles at a degree significant
enough to warrant their use. In summary, edge
breathing was found to be effective for the outer
edges (roughly 10 cm) of the panels only.
Once the evaluation of the x/y method of air
and volatile extraction was complete, the focus
shifted to promoting z-direction evacuation.

Figure 9. Improvements in AFP process parameters and tool sealing techniques combined to solve initial challenges
with bridging and tool side dryness at joggles.
36

SAMPE Journal, Volume 52, No. 4, July/August 2016



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016

Contents
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover1
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover2
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Contents
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 2
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 3
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 4
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 5
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 6
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 7
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 8
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 9
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SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 11
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