SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 40

Feature Article

Figure 13. Progression of complex contour feature complexity.

speed. While the kinematics of the machine
ultimately limited the speed of the machine over
the surface features, manipulating machine speed
in zones containing features was used to impact
the heat applied and benefit consolidation.
While multi-feature manufacturing articles
continue to be built at Lockheed Martin to finetune the AFP processing and cure parameters for
realistic components, there have been numerous
lessons learned from the efforts conducted
thus far. In summary, the parameters impacting
compaction, and methods for controlling heat
applied to the lay-up need to be tailored for each
configuration. Navigation through the developed
processing envelope required decisions to balance
producibility, defect reduction, and laminate
consolidation to meet the needs of the application

being fabricated. Generic parameter values could
not be applied to all parts.
Conclusions
After five years of process development on the
fiber placement of IM7/MTM®45-1 composite
Lockheed Martin Skunk Works® has established
extensive experience and data on the material
characteristics and AFP process parameters that
lead to the fabrication of improved prototype
aircraft wing skins. Conducting detailed building
block developments on a highly capable Ingersoll
Mongoose AFP machine has led to updates to the
machine head, placement parameters, and material
handling, all contributing to improved part quality.
Efforts have also identified that the implementation
of laser heating systems should expedite the
transition of AFP of OoA material into production
by substantially improving laydown rates and part
quality further.
References

1. Ridgard, C., "Out-of-Autoclave Technology for
Aerospace Structures - Challenges and Prospects."
SAMPE Tech. Conf., 2013.
2. "Out-of-Autoclave Fiber Placement, Phase II Program",
Final Report submitted to South Carolina Research
Authority, Contract N00014-06-D-0045, May 2011.
3. Criss, J.M., Koon, R.W., Tervet, F.W. & Neumeier, P.
E., Intl. SAMPE Tech. Conf. Ser., 33, 2001.
4. Criss, J.M., Watkins, S.E., McCloy, M., & Holmes,
S.T., Intl. SAMPE Tech. Conf. Ser., 30, 654, 1998.
5. Criss, J.M. & Watkins, S. E., GLCC Phase I Final
Report TDL 95-03, 1998.
6. ASTM Standard E2580, 2012, "Ultrasonic Testing
of Flat Panel Composites and Sandwich Core Materials
Used in Aerospace Applications" ASTM Int'l, West
Conshohocken, PA, 2012.
7. ASTM Standard D3171, 2009, "Constituent Content
of Composite Materials" ASTM Int'l, West Conshohocken,
PA, 2009.
8. ASTM Standard D7028, 2007, "Glass Transition
Temperature (DMA Tg) of Polymer Matrix Composites by
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)" ASTM International,
West Conshohocken, PA.

40

SAMPE Journal, Volume 52, No. 4, July/August 2016


http://www.siltech.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016

Contents
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover1
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover2
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Contents
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 2
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 3
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 4
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 5
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 6
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 7
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 8
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 9
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 10
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 11
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 12
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 13
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 14
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 15
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 16
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 17
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 18
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 19
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 20
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 21
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 22
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 23
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 24
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 25
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 26
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 27
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 28
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 29
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 30
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 31
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 32
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 33
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 34
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 35
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 36
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 37
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 38
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 39
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 40
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 41
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 42
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 43
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 44
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 45
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 46
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 47
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 48
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 49
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 50
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 51
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 52
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 53
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 54
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 55
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 56
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 57
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 58
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 59
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 60
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 61
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 62
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 63
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 64
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 65
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 66
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 67
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 68
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 69
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 70
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 71
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - 72
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover3
SAMPE Journal - July/August 2016 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20211112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20210910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20210708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20210506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20210304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20210102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20200708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20200506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20200304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20200102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20191112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20190910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20190708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20190506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20190304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20190102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20181112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20180910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20180708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20180506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20180304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20180102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20171112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20170910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20170708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20170506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20170304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20170102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20161112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20160910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20160708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20160506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20160304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20160102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20151112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20150910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20150708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20150506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20150304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20150102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20141112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20140910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20140708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20140506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20140304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20140102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20131112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20130910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20130708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20130506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20130304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20130102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20121112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20120910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20120708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20120506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20120304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20120102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20111112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20110910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20110708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20110506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20110304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sampe/journal_20110102
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com