Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 17

In the past five years, many people have learned various food preparation techniques by watching food-related television shows, particularly on cable television. More people than ever have access to satellite or cable television (1, 10) and the Food Network is one of the most popular stations on cable (2). The Food Network is distributed to more than 85 million households in the United States and is considered the giant in food programming, ranked number one out of 50 cable channels (2). “Food Network has one of the most engaged audiences in television. …As the giant in food programming, they are ranked number one out of 50 cable channels.” More than 85 million households in the United States receive the Food Network (2). The Food Network claims an average viewership of 766,000. Revenue for the network continues to grow, with tripled revenues since 2000; reported earnings in 2005 were $363 million, which is high for a cable channel (5). The network has a viewership of more than three-quarters of a million Americans, a large following for a cable channel (5). Most previous research on food safety and television has been conducted in Europe and Canada (3, 6, 9). In a survey conducted in the United Kingdom, 97% of the respondents said they watch television cooking shows, and 44% thought their home food preparation behaviors were influenced by food safety habits shown on television food shows. When the respondents rated the behaviors of television chefs, 88% considered the chefs’ food safety practices good-toaverage (9). An early-1990s study in Wales that analyzed the food safety practices dealt within television cooking programs found that some practices, such as good personal habits, were included in 76% of the programs; however, other practices, such as the need for thorough cooking, proper cooling, and thorough reheating, were poorly dealt with or ignored. Practices to eliminate cross contamination, such as washing hands or cleaning dishes and utensils after these have touched raw food, were not mentioned or shown (4). A similar study in Canada in 2002 and 2003 found that for each positive food handling behavior observed, 13 negative behaviors were observed. The most common unsafe practices were “inadequate hand washing, cross contamination between raw and ready-to-eat food, failure to wash fresh fruits and vegetables, and inadequate washing of cooking utensils and cutting boards” (6). Griffith et al. (4) say that television can be a good vehicle to educate viewers on food safety practices, since the correct methods can be demonstrated effectively. In addition, television reaches a wide audience; of all media formats, it has the largest audience and the greatest degree of interpersonal communication. Television can effectively communicate this information and possibly change attitudes toward food safety; however, to be effective, cooking programs need to contain specific information and illustrations on food safety measures in order to change attitudes and practices (4). Two research questions guided this study: 1. How frequently are positive or negative food handling practices demonstrated or mentioned on television cooking shows? 2. What, if any, information do television cooking shows provide about safely handling food? It is hoped that this study can provide information to the general public about the lack of food safety procedures demonstrated on the Food Network so they can be aware that what is seen on television is not necessarily the safest way to cook. In addition, the researchers hope that this study will encourage the Food Network and other television cooking shows to change their presentation methods to include more food safety information. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study replicates work conducted by Mathiasen, Chapman, LaCroix, and Powell in 2002 and 2003 on cooking shows on Food Network Canada (6). A study of this nature has not yet been conducted in the United States. The Mathiassen et al. (6) study analyzed 47 shows that aired over a two-week period and used 17 different coded categories: six positive and 11 negative. The positive behaviors included proper hand washing, cleaning equipment, washing fruits and vegetables, adequate refrigeration, use of thermometer, or other positives. The negative categories included using food from unsafe sources, failure to use thermometer, use of food from floor, failure to refrigerate perishables, failure to wash fruits or vegetables, inadequate washing of equipment, improper food sampling or licking of fingers, cross contamination of ready-to-eat or raw foods, touching the face, lack of hand washing, and other negatives. Statement of the problem Cable and digital broadcast (satellite) television are gaining popularity each year. According to Umstead (10), more viewers are turning to cable or satellite television and away from broadcast, and ad-supported cable networks recorded a 61% share of the audience in the summer of 2006, beating the seven broadcast networks’ 32.7% share. At the same time, fewer schools are offering food preparation courses, and many people say they prefer to learn about food preparation through television (4). Yet British and Canadian research has found that food preparation television programs similar to those on the Food Network do not always adhere to safe food handling practices. A study to evaluate safe food handling practices on the Food Network programs has not yet been conducted in the United States. Since many people are learning new food cooking techniques through these shows, it is important to determine if the shows teach correct methods of safe food handling, such as hand and surface washing, preventing cross contamination, proper cooking temperatures, and correct food chilling and re-heating. The purpose of this study was to determine how well television cooking shows on the Food Network in the United States adhere to the proper food safety procedures specified by the Partnership for Food Safety Education (8). Instrumentation In this study of shows on the Food Network in the United States, a total of 49 shows were analyzed. Researchers recorded five popular shows on the Food Network over the course of two weeks: 30 Minute Meals with Rachael Ray, The Essence of Emeril, Everyday Italian, Paula’s Home Cooking, and Semi-Homemade Cooking with Sandra Lee. JANUARY 2009 | FOOD PROTECTION TRENDS 17

Food Protection Trends - January 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January 2009

Food Protection Trends - January 2009
Contents
A Note from the FPT Scientific Editor
Sustaining Members
Perspectives from Your President
Commentary from the Executive Director
A Content Analysis of Food Safety Measures on Television’s Food Network
Behavioral, Normative, and Control Beliefs Impacts on the Intention to Offer Food Safety Training to Employees
FPT Instructions for Authors
Highlights from IAFP Fourth European Symposium on Food Safety
Call for Awards – IAFP 2009
New Members
What’s Happening in Food Safety
Industry Products
Coming Events
Advertising Index
Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Audiovisual Library Order Form
Booklet Order Form
Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Food Protection Trends - January 2009
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Contents
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - A Note from the FPT Scientific Editor
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 8
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Sustaining Members
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Perspectives from Your President
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Commentary from the Executive Director
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - A Content Analysis of Food Safety Measures on Television’s Food Network
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 18
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Behavioral, Normative, and Control Beliefs Impacts on the Intention to Offer Food Safety Training to Employees
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 27
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - FPT Instructions for Authors
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Highlights from IAFP Fourth European Symposium on Food Safety
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Call for Awards – IAFP 2009
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - New Members
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - What’s Happening in Food Safety
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Advertising Index
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Audiovisual Library Order Form
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Booklet Order Form
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January 2009 - Cover4
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