Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 784

from 3.31°C to 9.03°C in the six summer shipments and -2.44°C to 9.42°C in the six winter shipments. Campylobacter species were not isolated from any of the 1,200 packages of retail ground beef. PCR detection of campylobacters Of the 142 samples tested using PCR, 65 (46%) were positive for DNA of Campylobacter spp. origin while 77 were negative (Table 1). Two of the 142 samples tested with use of PCR could not be linked to store or chain and were omitted from all subsequent analyses. The remaining 140 ground beef samples represented 52 different stores. Twelve stores had more than one meat sample tested from the same collection period. Of these 12 stores, only four stores had more than one meat sample positive for DNA of Campylobacter spp. origin. Ten of these 12 stores had either four or five samples from the same collection period tested with PCR, and the most any store had positive for DNA of Campylobacter spp. origin was two samples. Campylobacter spp. by PCR. The odds of a retail ground beef package testing positive for Campylobacter spp. DNA was 5.6 times greater if the package was from collection period 2 than if it was from collection period 1 (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.8–17.5). Further, a package had 12 times greater odds of testing positive for Campylobacter spp. DNA if it was from collection period 3 than if it was from collection period 1 (OR 12.0, 95% CI 3.5–42.0). Ground beef from collection period 4 was not statistically different from beef from collection period 1 (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.2–2.0). DISCUSSION The samples from this large retail ground beef survey represented four different supermarket chains and three cities in southern Alberta. Random selection of packages in stores, multiple collection periods, and limiting the number of packages purchased per store were used to avoid oversampling the same meat batches. In 2005, source beef for ground beef likely came from the six federally inspected slaughter plants in Alberta (1), or from provincially inspected facilities. Because retail chains likely purchased meat from the same plants or processors, it was expected that variation within each chain would be small. As a result, only five packages of ground beef were purchased from each store at each collection time. Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) have been identified and programs implemented in all federally registered beef slaughter plants in Canada (5). In previous surveys in cattle, poultry and swine, significant reductions in Campylobacter isolation rates from slaughter to post-chill have been reported (20, 24, 26). Protocols in cattle slaughter plants, including hide-on-carcass, lactic acid, hot water, and carcass washes, chilling, and the ability to remove potentially contaminating components (e.g., hides and intestinal tracts) quickly and intact may have all contributed to bacterial numbers below detectable levels in the retail ground beef surveyed here. It can be difficult to compare laboratory protocols with other published research because many incubation and temperature protocols, culture media, and antimicrobial supplements are avail- Factors associated with PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. For one sample, data were missing for whether or not the source store cut poultry. This sample was included in risk factor analysis, and designated ‘missing’ in the “poultry” analysis. Supermarket chain did not explain an important part of the variance in the null model (chain level variance 0.000, standard error 0.000) and was not included as a random effect in the final analysis. After accounting for clustering within the store of origin, only the package type and the collection period variables were selected for consideration in the development of a final model (P ≤ 0.25) (Table 2). None of the other risk factors considered (chain, city, inclusion of frozen portions, on-site poultry cutting practices, kinds of trim in the ground beef or package weight) were associated with the odds of detecting campylobacters by PCR (Table 2). When package type (regular or lean) and collection period (1: Nov 21–23, 2004, 2: Jan 9–11, 2005, 3: May 30–31, June 1, 2005, and 4: July 18–20, 2005) were examined together, only the collection period was significantly associated (P ≤ 0.05) with detection of able, and because viable but non culturable Campylobacter strains may exist (8, 23). Using the culture technique described, we were able to isolate C. jejuni at 1×101 CFU/g in experimentally inoculated ground beef samples; this level is below the estimated dose required for human infection (3, 14). However, none of the 1,200 packages of retail ground beef collected as part of this study were culture positive for viable Campylobacter spp., an encouraging finding for public health in Alberta. The very low prevalence of culturable Campylobacter levels in retail ground beef observed in this study is similar to those seen in other North American ground beef surveys (4, 28) and lower than the 60–90% prevalences reported in raw retail chicken (4, 30, 31). In a survey in the United States from 2002–2005, campylobacters were identified in only 1 of 2,073 packages of ground beef using culture (28), and a smaller Alberta survey found zero of 100 packages positive (4). However, it is possible that the laboratory sensitivity of the culture method used here may not have been high enough to pick up very low numbers of organisms. Further, if campylobacters were sufficiently stressed, it is possible the method was not able to resuscitate these pathogens sufficiently for growth with culture. Three of the meat shipments dipped below the 0°C mark during shipping; however, campylobacters have been isolated from ground beef frozen at -18°C for 90 days (10), and culture recovery in our study did not vary between summer and winter samplings. Traditionally, PCR has been used to confirm isolates as campylobacters rather than as a survey tool in retail meat studies (13, 30, 31). This is because from a food safety point of view, viable campylobacters are usually the targets of interest and the identification of Campylobacter DNA by use of PCR does not ensure viability. However, from our direct PCR results, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. hyointestinalis were identified in the retail ground beef. None of the samples were positive for C. fetus or C. lanienae, species which may be carried by cattle, or for C. concisus or C. upsaliensis, which are pathogens responsible for infections in people but are putatively not carried by livestock (14, 21). Finding 27% (38/142) of samples PCR positive for 784 FOOD PROTECTION TRENDS | NOVEMBER 2009

Food Protection Trends - November 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November 2009

Food Protection Trends - November 2009
Contents
Sustaining Members
Vickie’s View from Your President
Commentary from the Executive Director
Prevalence and Risk Factor Investigation of Campylobacter Species in Retail Ground Beef from Alberta, Canada
Consumer Storage Period and Temperature for Peanut Butter and Their Effects on Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7
General Interest Paper – History of Consumer Food Safety Education Focus on Beef: Impact on Risk of Foodborne Illness
Award Nominations
New Members
What’s Happening in Food Safety
Industry Products
Coming Events
Advertising Index
Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Audiovisual Library Order Form
Booklet Order Form
Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Food Protection Trends - November 2009
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 765
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Contents
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 767
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 768
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 769
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 770
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 771
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 772
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Sustaining Members
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 774
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 775
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Vickie’s View from Your President
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 777
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Commentary from the Executive Director
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 779
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Prevalence and Risk Factor Investigation of Campylobacter Species in Retail Ground Beef from Alberta, Canada
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 781
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 782
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 783
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 784
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 785
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 786
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Consumer Storage Period and Temperature for Peanut Butter and Their Effects on Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 788
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 789
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 790
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 791
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 792
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - General Interest Paper – History of Consumer Food Safety Education Focus on Beef: Impact on Risk of Foodborne Illness
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 794
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 795
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 796
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 797
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 798
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 799
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Award Nominations
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 801
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 802
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 803
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 804
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 805
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 806
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 807
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - New Members
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 809
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - What’s Happening in Food Safety
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 811
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 812
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 814
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 815
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Advertising Index
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 818
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 819
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 820
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Audiovisual Library Order Form
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Booklet Order Form
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20191112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20181112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20171112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20161112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20151112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20141112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20131112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200807
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com