Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 788

TABLE 1. Percentage of consumers with different education levels who store peanut butter 24 weeks Percentage of consumers who store peanut butter for: Education level < High school High school Some college Bachelors or higher 24 weeks 0.8 3.4 3.4 4.2 foodborne illness caused by peanut butter consumption in the United States, with at least 625 cases. Another major Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with peanut butter occurred in 2008–2009, with at least 486 people involved in 44 states (4, 15). Therefore, Salmonella contamination of peanut butter continues to be a challenge in the United States, as suggested by these recent outbreaks. Peanuts are the main ingredient in peanut butter, and contamination of peanuts with Salmonella or other foodborne pathogens is possible during growth, harvest, transportation, and even storage (11). Thermal processing of peanut butter might not always eliminate Salmonella (17), and post-process contamination during repackaging may lead to its presence at the point of consumption (2). Because of the frequency of outbreaks of Salmonella associated with peanut butter and the associated substantial economic burden on society, additional studies on consumers’ peanut butter storage conditions are needed. In addition, the survival of E. coli O157: H7 in peanut butter has not been evaluated. E. coli O157:H7 has a low infective dose (19) and is one of the most serious foodborne known pathogens (1, 12). Therefore, this study recruited participants from the general public to gain a better understanding of preferred duration and storage temperatures of peanut butter in consumers’ domestic kitchens, and of how these conditions affect the survival of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. churches, and community organizations. Researchers contacted the subjects and used a script/screener to determine eligibility. In each household, the person mainly responsible for food purchase, storage, and preparation, and at least 18 years old, was interviewed. To mirror the general population, the participants were in the following categories: less than high school, (13.3%), high school diploma (26%), bachelor’s degree or higher (32%), and some college (28.7). Most respondents had incomes between $15,000 and $75,000 a year. The survey questionnaire inquired about consumers’ peanut butter purchasing, storage conditions, and storage period. Consumers were also questioned whether they ever threw away peanut butter after a certain period of storage and if so, why. Laboratory simulation of consumer peanut butter storage conditions Storage periods and temperatures of peanut butter in domestic kitchens and their effects on the survival of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were evaluated in a laboratory setting. Peanut butter was contaminated with Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and thereafter stored either at room or refrigeration temperature to simulate consumers’ storage conditions. Science, Auburn, Alabama, USA) and have been linked to foodborne illnesses in the past. Information on the survival of these organisms in peanut butter is lacking. To test for ability to maintain genes associated with antibiotic resistance, antibiotic-resistant Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 strains were grown in a series of broth-to-agar media inoculated with the respective antibiotics (Salmonella, 100 ppm nalidixic acid; E. coli O157:H7, 200 ppm nalidixic acid and 0.025 ppm novobiocin; Sigma, St. Louis, MO). Bacterial cell cultures were maintained on Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA, Difco, Lawrence, Kansas) plates and subjected to two successive transfers into 10 ml Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) and incubation at 37oC for 20 h. Cells were harvested by centrifugation (3,500 × g, 15 min) at 4oC and washed three times in Butterfield’s phosphate buffer (BPB). Bacterial cell pellets were resuspended in 5 ml of sterile BPB and combined to form a three serotype cocktail for each bacterium. Concentration levels of each cocktail were quantified by spread plating 100 µl onto TSA plates inoculated with the appropriate antibiotics for Salmonella and E. coli selection. To facilitate recovery and eliminate background flora, antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella (100 ppm nalidixic acid) and E. coli O157:H7 (200 ppm nalidixic acid; 0.025 ppm novobiocin) were used. Preparation of bacterial cell suspension S. Mission (isolated from rectal swabs), S. Typhimurium (associated with peanut butter), S. Enteritidis (isolated from human feces), E. coli O157:H7 204P (pork isolate), E. coli O157:H7 301C (chicken isolate), and E. coli O157:H7 505B (beef isolate) were used in this study. These bacterial strains were obtained from Auburn University (Department of Nutrition and Food Inoculation of peanut butter with Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 Commercially processed jars of peanut butter were purchased at a local grocery store. Creamy peanut butter (Kroger Co., Cincinnati, OH) listed ingredients were: roasted peanuts, sugar, 2% molasses, fully hydrogenated vegetable oils (rapeseed, cottonseed, and soybean) and salt. Peanut butter sam- MATERIAL AND METHODS Survey of consumer storage of peanut butter A total of 150 households in Middle Tennessee participated in this study. Participants were recruited through posted flyers at senior housing communities, 788 FOOD PROTECTION TRENDS | NOVEMBER 2009

Food Protection Trends - November 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November 2009

Food Protection Trends - November 2009
Contents
Sustaining Members
Vickie’s View from Your President
Commentary from the Executive Director
Prevalence and Risk Factor Investigation of Campylobacter Species in Retail Ground Beef from Alberta, Canada
Consumer Storage Period and Temperature for Peanut Butter and Their Effects on Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7
General Interest Paper – History of Consumer Food Safety Education Focus on Beef: Impact on Risk of Foodborne Illness
Award Nominations
New Members
What’s Happening in Food Safety
Industry Products
Coming Events
Advertising Index
Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Audiovisual Library Order Form
Booklet Order Form
Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Food Protection Trends - November 2009
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 765
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Contents
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 767
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 768
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 769
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 770
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 771
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 772
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Sustaining Members
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 774
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 775
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Vickie’s View from Your President
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 777
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Commentary from the Executive Director
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 779
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Prevalence and Risk Factor Investigation of Campylobacter Species in Retail Ground Beef from Alberta, Canada
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 781
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 782
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 783
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 784
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 785
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 786
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Consumer Storage Period and Temperature for Peanut Butter and Their Effects on Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 788
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 789
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 790
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 791
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 792
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - General Interest Paper – History of Consumer Food Safety Education Focus on Beef: Impact on Risk of Foodborne Illness
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 794
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 795
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 796
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 797
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 798
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 799
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Award Nominations
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 801
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 802
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 803
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 804
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 805
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 806
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 807
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - New Members
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 809
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - What’s Happening in Food Safety
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 811
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 812
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 814
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 815
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Advertising Index
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 818
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 819
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 820
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Audiovisual Library Order Form
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Booklet Order Form
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover4
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