Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 794

Someone You Know at Risk for Foodborne Illness? identifies people at increased risk as seniors, pregnant women, children, and people with a weakened immune system (43). Written in a proactive way, readers are encouraged to “take control” to reduce the risk for foodborne disease. The reasons why people with specific health conditions are more vulnerable to foodborne illness is explained in a clear and understandable manner. Specific handling guidelines are provided for shopping, cold storage, safe thawing, proper food preparation, serving, and handling leftovers. The recommended temperature for the home refrigerator is specified at 40°F or colder, and readers are advised to cook ground meat to 160°F. Other publications by USDA provide specific recommendations consistent with current knowledge of foodborne illness. Food News for Consumers, for example, recommends that foods should be marinated in the refrigerator, foods should be cooked completely rather than partially cooked, held and reheated, and meat should be cooked to 160°F (31). Similarly, A Quick Consumer Guide to Safe Food Handling includes specific information as to temperature control and safe storage time (45). USDA’s Meat and Poultry Hotline, established in 1985, provides answers to consumer questions through a toll free telephone call, fact sheets, articles in educational publications such as Food News, and fact sheets available through the internet (47). Hotline representatives also respond to media calls, reaching an even larger audience. Reports of the hotline activities are posted periodically (46). Another USDA consumer publication, Preventing Foodborne Illness, provides detailed food handling information (44). Sections are devoted to safe shopping, storage, preparation, serving, and handling of leftovers. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is mentioned, and consumers are advised to cook ground beef to 160°F. Listeria is discussed and pregnant women are identified as being at increased risk for this pathogen. Those at high risk are advised to reheat processed meats. In 1991, the FDA also provided more comprehensive and specific consumer food safety guidelines. Preventing Foodborne Illness provides foodborne illness prevention tips, including sections on cleaning and cooking, safe storage with recommended storage times, symptoms and sources of bacteria and sources for additional information (3). The minimum recommended cooking temperatures for beef is 140°F. A higher temperature for ground beef is not advised. Although this document was reprinted and revised in 1997, a recommended end point cooking temperature for ground beef was not added. College textbooks published in the 1990s reflect a more comprehensive coverage of foodborne illness. Food Safety, by Julie Jones, includes a discussion of significantly more microbial pathogens than books from the previous decade, including Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Toxoplasma gondii, Staphylococcus aureus, C. perfringens, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Trichinella spiralis, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and others. Raw meat and meat products are identified as a source of Salmonella, C. perfringens, and L. monocytogenes. Jones notes that E. coli is a common resident of the intestinal tract of warmblooded animals. She notes that for many years it had been considered harmless; however, particular strains of E. coli were the cause of enteric disease in the 1980s, with soft cheeses and ground beef identified as the food sources. Sanitary handling to avoid cross-contamination, thorough cooking, and keeping foods out of the danger zone are specified as ways to reduce the probability of illness. Consumers indicate that they obtain safe handling information from cookbooks and magazines (35). A review of classic cookbooks, such as Better Homes and Gardens or Joy of Cooking, indicates that virtually all limit food handling information to culinary issues such as the temperature for roasts cooked to rare, medium, or well done. Even books published in the1990s and later, specializing in ground beef or grilling, address preference for degree of doneness rather than food safety considerations. There are exceptions. The 1997 edition of Joy of Cooking lists the recommended end point temperature of 160°F for meat loaf (page 722) but incorrectly advises consumers to cook ground beef to 155°F (page 646) (38). Further, readers are advised that risk is lessened by buying top-grade beef and grinding it themselves. This is a potentially risky practice, since the opportunity for cross contamination in the kitchen is high. Some cookbooks provide current, accurate information. The Complete Meat Cookbook, for example, recommends 160°F or 155°F for 15 seconds as the end point cooking temperature for ground beef (1). LANDMARK FOOD SAFETY EVENT A landmark event in food safety occurred in 1993. Consumption of undercooked hamburger contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 resulted in 501 illnesses, 151 hospitalizations, and 3 deaths (11). This outbreak received extensive publicity because the source of illness was a popular food and many victims were children. In 1994, USDA declared E. coli O157:H7 an adulterant in raw beef, and a program began to test for the pathogen in raw ground beef from federally inspected establishments and retail stores (15). In 1994, the public was advised to cook ground beef until it is brown and juices run clear; however, in 1997, FSIS revised this recommendation. Cooked ground beef color was demonstrated to be an inaccurate predictor of end point temperature. Consumers were advised to use a meat thermometer and cook to 160°F rather than rely on color. Since 1994, USDA has required safe food-handling labels on retail packages or raw and partially cooked meat and poultry products. The label advises consumers to refrigerate the product, avoid cross contamination, cook thoroughly, keep hot food hot, and handle leftovers properly. Interview and survey data indicate that 51% or more of consumers contacted recalled seeing the label. Of these, 79% or more remember reading the label, and 37% of these said they changed the way 794 FOOD PROTECTION TRENDS | NOVEMBER 2009

Food Protection Trends - November 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November 2009

Food Protection Trends - November 2009
Contents
Sustaining Members
Vickie’s View from Your President
Commentary from the Executive Director
Prevalence and Risk Factor Investigation of Campylobacter Species in Retail Ground Beef from Alberta, Canada
Consumer Storage Period and Temperature for Peanut Butter and Their Effects on Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7
General Interest Paper – History of Consumer Food Safety Education Focus on Beef: Impact on Risk of Foodborne Illness
Award Nominations
New Members
What’s Happening in Food Safety
Industry Products
Coming Events
Advertising Index
Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Audiovisual Library Order Form
Booklet Order Form
Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Food Protection Trends - November 2009
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 765
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Contents
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 767
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 768
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 769
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 770
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 771
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 772
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Sustaining Members
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 774
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 775
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Vickie’s View from Your President
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 777
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Commentary from the Executive Director
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 779
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Prevalence and Risk Factor Investigation of Campylobacter Species in Retail Ground Beef from Alberta, Canada
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 781
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 782
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 783
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 784
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 785
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 786
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Consumer Storage Period and Temperature for Peanut Butter and Their Effects on Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 788
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 789
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 790
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 791
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 792
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - General Interest Paper – History of Consumer Food Safety Education Focus on Beef: Impact on Risk of Foodborne Illness
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 794
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 795
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 796
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 797
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 798
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 799
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Award Nominations
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 801
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 802
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 803
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 804
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 805
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 806
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 807
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - New Members
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 809
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - What’s Happening in Food Safety
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 811
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 812
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 814
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 815
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Advertising Index
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 818
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 819
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 820
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Audiovisual Library Order Form
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Booklet Order Form
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20191112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20181112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20171112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20161112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20151112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20141112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20131112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200807
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com