Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 796

In an annual survey repeated over several years, consumers were asked to volunteer practices they follow to keep food safe. In 1990, no consumers volunteered that they wash their hands (32). In 2005– 2007, between 74 and 76% identified washing hands as something they do “every time” (18). Further, a review of select safe-handling practices indicates that more consumers report washing their hands with soap after handling raw meat or poultry, with 66% reporting washing in 1993, 76% in 1998 and 82% in 2001 (4). In 2009, 87% reported washing their hands with soap and water, but this percentage had decreased from 92% in 2008 (23). Do consumers really wash every time? The American Society for Microbiology has repeatedly shown that actual behavior is frequently different from reported behavior. For example, 92% of Americans say they wash their hands after using a restroom, but when observed, only 88% of women and 66% of men actually wash their hands (5). Video taping consumers in their homes while preparing a meal revealed that 45% of subjects attempted to wash their hands before starting meal preparation, of which 38% used soap (2). This indicates that consumers know that hand washing is important, but people may not always wash as frequently as food safety authorities recommend. plate between using it to hold raw and cooked meat (14). People may overstate what they perceive as the recommended behavior. Actual observation again reveals that consumers do not always follow recommended practices. When consumers were observed during meal preparation, over 477 cross-contamination events occurred. Most of these, 84%, involved contamination of ready to eat foods with raw meat or poultry (2). Thorough cooking of ground beef A national telephone survey conducted between December 1992 and February 1993 found that 23% of consumers served home prepared hamburgers rare or medium (24). In 1996 and 1997, 10% of consumers interviewed said they had eaten undercooked hamburger in the five days prior to the interview, while 30% said they preferred undercooked hamburger (39). In 1998 and 2001, those who said they had eaten rare or medium burgers decreased to 17 and 18%, respectively (4). Use of meat thermometer to determine doneness More consumers reported owning a meat thermometer in 2001, at 60%, compared to only 46 in 1998 (4). In 1998, 22% of consumers reported using a meat thermometer to determine when roasts or large pieces of meat are done. This percentage increased to 32% in 2001. Use of a thermometer is not an ingrained behavior. In 2009, 71% responded that they cook food to the required temperature. However, only 25% said they used a thermometer to check doneness of meat and poultry items (23). The percentage using a meat thermometer when cooking hamburgers is much lower. Only 3% indicated that they used a thermometer in 1998, and 6% in 2001 (4). Consumers can accidentally undercook ground beef that is used as part of a large meal item. Even though consumers believed their meatloaf was fully cooked, 46% of the meatloaves had not reached the recommended temperature of 160°F (2). Cross-contamination Consumer response to a question on cleaning cutting boards indicates an increasing percentage respond with recommended behavior. In 1996 and 1997, 7% of consumers acknowledged that they do not always wash their hands after handling raw meat or poultry, and 7% also admitted that they do not always wash the cutting board after cutting these raw foods (39). Proper cleaning of cutting boards or other surfaces after cutting raw meat or poultry was reported by 68% of consumers in 1993, 79% in 1998, and 85% in 2001 (4). In contrast, in 2009, only 50% of consumers reported using different or freshly cleaned cutting boards between raw meat and poultry and produce (23). Others found that in 1999 and 2002, 18% of consumers did not wash the Popular sources of recipes do not encourage use of a thermometer but rather rely on time of cooking and color. Celebrity chef Bobby Flay describes several tasty ways to cook burgers in the Sunday newspaper insert, Parade magazine (17). Readers are told to “Grill for 3-4 minutes on each side, until golden brown and cooked medium inside.” The September 2009 issue of Saveur magazine featuring The Burger Bible focuses on flavorful ingredients. Readers are advised to “cook burgers, flipping once, until cooked to desired doneness, about 12 minutes total for medium rare”(6). In the article “Ultimate Burgers,” Sunset Magazine advises readers to grill burgers 4 to 6 minutes, turning once for rare, and ten minutes for medium to well-done burgers (42). Cooks are advised to “check doneness,” but use of a thermometer is not mentioned. Perhaps the most shocking advice comes from the New York Times (40). The writer interviewed several chefs from around the country, gleaning tips from each to share with the reader. None mention use of a thermometer. The paper reports that Seamus Mullen, the chef and an owner of the Boqueria restaurants in the Flatiron district and SoHo, uses a wire cake tester to determine doneness. “We stick it in the middle through the side,” he said. “If it’s barely warm to the lips, it’s rare. If it’s like bath water, it’s medium rare. The temperature will never lie. It takes the guesswork out of everything.” Knowledge and behavior Surveys indicate that consumer knowledge of several key messages on safe handling has increased, but knowledge gaps still exist (4, 36). In some cases, people are not familiar with details of the recommendation. They do not know the appropriate end-point temperature for cooked hamburger or the appropriate temperature for the refrigerator. People do not realize the importance of hand washing, and they think that rinsing hands or a cutting board with water constitutes adequate cleaning. Even if they know the recommendations, people do not always follow them. People say that the recommendations do not apply to them, or that they are too busy 796 FOOD PROTECTION TRENDS | NOVEMBER 2009

Food Protection Trends - November 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November 2009

Food Protection Trends - November 2009
Contents
Sustaining Members
Vickie’s View from Your President
Commentary from the Executive Director
Prevalence and Risk Factor Investigation of Campylobacter Species in Retail Ground Beef from Alberta, Canada
Consumer Storage Period and Temperature for Peanut Butter and Their Effects on Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7
General Interest Paper – History of Consumer Food Safety Education Focus on Beef: Impact on Risk of Foodborne Illness
Award Nominations
New Members
What’s Happening in Food Safety
Industry Products
Coming Events
Advertising Index
Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Audiovisual Library Order Form
Booklet Order Form
Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Food Protection Trends - November 2009
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 765
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Contents
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 767
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 768
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 769
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 770
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 771
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 772
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Sustaining Members
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 774
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 775
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Vickie’s View from Your President
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 777
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Commentary from the Executive Director
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 779
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Prevalence and Risk Factor Investigation of Campylobacter Species in Retail Ground Beef from Alberta, Canada
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 781
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 782
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 783
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 784
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 785
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 786
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Consumer Storage Period and Temperature for Peanut Butter and Their Effects on Survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 788
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 789
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 790
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 791
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 792
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - General Interest Paper – History of Consumer Food Safety Education Focus on Beef: Impact on Risk of Foodborne Illness
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 794
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 795
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 796
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 797
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 798
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 799
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Award Nominations
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 801
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 802
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 803
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 804
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 805
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 806
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 807
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - New Members
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 809
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - What’s Happening in Food Safety
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 811
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 812
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 814
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 815
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Advertising Index
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 818
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 819
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - 820
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Journal of Food Protection Table of Contents
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Audiovisual Library Order Form
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Booklet Order Form
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Membership Application
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November 2009 - Cover4
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