Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 267

greater number of participants in each time frame to properly
observe trends over time.
LIMITATIONS
The small sample size and low response rate in this
study may be a limitation, as the sample may not have
been representative of the larger population of food
handlers. Therefore, the conclusions drawn in this study
may not apply to the general population of food handlers
in Canada. However, it is not known how many E-mails
were undeliverable to participants, which would reduce the
number of invited participants from 2,257, thereby increasing
the response rate. There was likely underrepresentation of
some demographic categories that limited the ability to
test for associations with average knowledge scores. There
was low representation of participants who obtained their
food handler certification ≥ 3 years ago but < 5 years ago,
and ≥ 5 years ago, as compared to the high representation
of participants who acquired certification ≥ 1 year ago but
< 3 years ago (Table 1). The larger number of participants
in the group who obtained their most recent food handler
certification ≥ 1 year ago but < 3 years ago may have been
seen because this group was eager to test their food safety
knowledge, as they had more recently certified. There may
have been fewer participants in the other two time frame
groups because they had certified earlier and may have been
facing a decline in food safety knowledge, which would make
them less likely to participate in the survey.
The high turnover rate of employees in the food service
industry may be another reason why there were relatively
few participants who had obtained their food handler
certification ≥ 3 years ago but < 5 years ago, and ≥ 5 years
ago (Table 1). The food service industry employs a sizeable
number of young people and students, seasonal/temporary
workers and part-time workers (7). These workers may be
employed for only a short period of time, such as a summer
or holiday season, or they may be returning to school or
ending their employment in the food service industry for a
position in another industry (7). These factors may indicate
why such a large portion of participants in this study had
obtained their food handler certification in the time frame of
≥ 1 year ago and < 3 years ago from the start of the study.
The survey questions used in this study were picked at
random from four different Ontario MOHLTC food safety
exams, to ensure that no bias was demonstrated in question
selection. Questions that were randomly selected may not
have been the best questions to test food safety knowledge,
compared with other questions that were not selected for the
survey. To eliminate this type of limitation, questions could
be selected based on the food safety knowledge needed to
answer them correctly, instead of by randomization.
The Government of Canada has not mandated a Canadawide minimum passing score for food handler certification
tests; the provinces and territories determine their own

passing scores. As the Ontario MOHLTC's tests were used
for this study, their minimum passing score of 70% was used
for consistency. The only provincial or territorial government
that recommends a minimum passing score for food handler
certification is Ontario (30). In contrast, the passing grade
for TrainCan Inc.'s "Basics.fst" exam is 74% (28). A disparity
may be created by using the Ontario minimum score.
The food safety knowledge survey was forwarded to potential participants by TrainCan Inc., resulting in unavailability of demographic information of potential participants
who did not respond to the survey invitation. The demographic information of non-responding potential participants could give insight into why they did not partake in
the study, compared with the demographic information of
those who participated.
As a result of the design of the study, the country of origin
of participants is not known in relation to the number of
years lived in Canada, which was related significantly to the
amount of food safety knowledge displayed on the food
safety survey. To better explain these results, information on
the country of origin of these participants, other countries
where these participants have previously resided, and the
length of time residing in other countries would be required.
Similarly, the type of bachelor's degree or postgraduate
degree possessed by participants in this study was not
captured. For budgetary reasons, the survey was offered only
in English, possibly resulting in an underrepresented sample
among those who do not speak English as their first language.
English fluency levels were not assessed among participants
in this study, which may affect food safety knowledge survey
scores if participants were not able to understand questions
because of a lack of English language comprehension skills.
The initial food handler certification results of the
participants were not known, which could give statistical
indication of food safety knowledge retention through
analysis of scores before and after food safety training.
Further research in this area should include comparison
of previous and current food handler certification test
scores for assessment of food safety knowledge retention
and changes between tests. Incorporating behavioral
observation of food handling would provide further
information on the practical application of food safety
knowledge among food handlers.
CONCLUSIONS
Food handlers in this study demonstrated incorrect
knowledge of some food safety topics, such as adequate
reheating of potentially hazardous foods, manual
dishwashing, and proper sanitary food storage. Foodhandling training courses should consider emphasizing
these topics to reinforce the required knowledge. The
demographics associated with the highest food safety
knowledge scores in this study - education level, years
lived in Canada, years worked in the food service industry,

July/August Food Protection Trends

267



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017

Contents
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - Contents
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 234
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 235
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 236
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 237
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 238
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 239
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 240
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 241
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 242
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 250
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 256
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 257
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 258
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 259
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 260
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 261
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 266
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 270
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 271
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 272
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 273
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 274
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 275
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 276
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 277
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 278
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 279
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 280
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 284
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 288
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 289
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 290
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 291
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 292
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 293
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 294
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 295
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 298
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 300
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 302
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 303
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 304
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2017 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20191112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20181112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20171112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20161112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20151112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20141112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20131112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200807
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com