Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399

area. They observed high aerobic plate counts for both
cleaning cloths and on the associated surfaces after cleaning
in the absence of a disinfectant. What was interesting in the
current study was that the efficacy of the disinfectant was
maintained even in the presence of a relatively high soil load,
despite suggestions that a higher concentration of QAC is
needed to be efficacious in the presence of high soil (5).
Medrano-Félix et al. (10) demonstrated that households in
which a QAC disinfectant intervention was introduced had
reduced numbers of E. coli on kitchen countertops over time,
compared with households that did not receive the QAC
intervention, which showed no change or increased numbers
of E. coli on countertops. Our work also demonstrates the
efficacy of QAC disinfectants against representative gramnegative and gram-positive bacteria, even in the presence of a
significant organic load.
The results for bacteriophage MS2 are shown in Fig. 4. The
results for the positive control (PBS as bucket solution, no
disinfectant) showed that quantifiable cross-contamination
occurred through wiping of S3. With the first wipe, approximately 2.5 log PFU/surface was removed and/or inactivated,
giving a concentration of 6.1 ± 0.9 log PFU on S1. After submerging the cloth in PBS and using that cloth to wipe down
S2, 3.7 ± 0.9 log PFU was transferred, with 3.0 ± 0.3 log
PFU/surface then transferred to S3, representing subsequent
cross-contamination. After submerging the cloth in PBS for
a second time, the MS2 was not detected on S4 after the last
wiping event, at least within the enumeration limit of the
assay (which was < 2.78 log PFU/surface).
The data for QAC, with and without added soil, were
similar but not identical to that for PBS. In the absence
of added soil, MS2 became undetectable on S2, showing
some benefit of the QAC in preventing long-term crosscontamination. For QAC with 5% soil experiments,
cross-contamination was never completely ameliorated
since quantifiable virus was present even on S4, albeit
the concentrations of MS2 for S3 and S4 were low, at 3.6
± 0.1 log PFU/surface and 3.4 ± 0.3 log10 PFU/surface,
respectively. For all three treatments, rapid inactivation and/
or removal of virus occurred between the positive control
and S2; thereafter, inactivation or cross-contamination was
either marginal or nonexistent (because the assay limit of
enumeration had been reached).
MS2 was chosen for use as a surrogate for human enteric
viruses, specifically HNV. It has been shown that HNV has
long-term persistence (weeks) on surfaces, and in general,
QACs have poor efficacy against HNV (19). The results of
this study were somewhat surprising if taken in the context
of MS2 being used to model HNV behavior. The fact that
so much of the virus was lost between the positive control
and S2, whether or not the disinfectant was present, suggests
that MS2 was effectively removed by the act of wiping. There
is little information on the efficacy of rubbing to remove
HNV, with one study showing approximately 1 log removal

of HNV depending on the type of cloth used (8). In the
same study, the impact of cloth type on the transferability of
HNV surrogates (MS2 and PRD1 bacteriophages and feline
calicivirus) to stainless steel surfaces was evaluated and found
to be cloth dependent, ranging from very little transferred to
around 3 log PFU. Hence, we should be cautious in assuming
that HNV would be removed by cloth wiping because there
are many variables in our study that were not evaluated.
Unfortunately, because removal appeared to be so effective,
there was only a small window (about 1 log PFU) in which
to evaluate efficacy of the QAC, not enough to make any
compelling conclusions about sanitizer efficacy. In short,
further studies are required to truly understand the behavior
of HNV with respect to cross-contamination and inactivation
in reusable cloth-and-bucket scenarios.
Results for wiping experiments with B. cereus differed
quite considerably from those for the vegetative bacteria and
MS2. In the absence of a disinfectant (PBS control), 8.8 ±
0.1 log CFU/surface remained on S1 after the first wiping
step, suggesting that approximately 1.2 log CFU/surface
was removed by the act of wiping when compared with the
positive control. After submerging the cloth in PBS and then
using that cloth to wipe down S2, a total of 7.0 ± 0.4 log CFU/
surface was transferred. This degree of cross-contamination
remained relatively consistent for subsequent wiping steps
(S3 and S4). When QAC without added soil was used as the
bucket solution, very similar results were observed, strongly
suggesting that the QAC had no sporicidal effect on B. cereus.
This was not unexpected because the efficacy of QACs on
spores has been shown to be formulation dependent (6). The
addition of 5% soil to the disinfectant solution had something
of a protective effect in wiping experiments, with only 0.8 log
CFU/surface removed in the first wiping action and relatively
consistent cross-contamination (8.4 ± 0.1 log CFU/surface,
8.3 ± 0.1 log CFU/surface, and 7.8 ± 0.1 log CFU/surface for
S2, S3, and S4, respectively) occurring thereafter.
Collectively, B. cereus spores were readily transferred from
surface to surface, regardless of the solution used for wiping
experiments. The spores were resistant to inactivation by the
QAC and may have been protected by the addition of soil. As
was the case for the vegetative bacteria, cross-contamination
appeared less efficient if first preceded by rinsing the cloth
in the bucket water (as was the case for S1 versus S2 and S3
versus S4) as compared with two sequential wipes without a
cloth rinse (S2 versus S3). These data clearly demonstrate the
environmental resilience of spores and their ease of spread
from surface to surface using reusable cloths, regardless
of whether or not a QAC disinfectant is present. This was
perhaps expected because some studies of disinfection of C.
difficile spores have found that QAC-based disinfectants did
not have sporicidal properties (7). The results of this study
support those of previous ones (18) showing that C. difficile
spores are easily transferred by reusable cloths to surfaces
across multiple wiping events.

November/December Food Protection Trends

399



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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