Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400

TABLE 2.  Numbers of microorganisms detected in bucket solution after wiping experiments

Organism

L. innocua

E. coli

B. cereus

MS2

Treatment

Positive input control
(mean CFU/PFU ±
standard deviation)

Bucket solution (mean
CFU/PFU ± standard
deviation)

% transferred to and
remaining in bucket
solutiona

PBS
QAC
QAC + soil
PBS
QAC
QAC + soil
PBS
QAC
QAC + soil
PBS
QAC

9.58 ± 0.74
9.60 ± 0.28
8.83 ± 0.37
8.13 ± 0.18
6.33 ± 0.43
5.81 ± 0.20
10.01 ± 0.07
10.06 ± 0.03
9.98 ± 0.03
8.52 ± 1.09
7.80 ± 0.18

9.49 ± 0.99
N/A-LOEb
N/A-LOEb
8.54 ± 0.78
N/A-LOEb
N/A-LOEb
10.54 ± 0.22
9.48 ± 0.19
9.96 ± 0.03
8.39 ± 0.99
N/A-LOEb

99.1
N/A-LOEb
N/A-LOEb
105.0
N/A-LOEb
N/A-LOEb
105.3
94.2
99.8
98.5
N/A-LOEb

QAC + soil

7.46 ± 0.35

6.56 ± 0.38

87.9

Transferred to, and remaining in, the bucket solution was calculated by dividing the number of organisms detected in the bucket
solution by the number of organisms detected in the positive input control and multiplying by 100 [(bucket solution mean/
positive input control mean) × 100].

a

Not applicable (N/A), when the organism was completely inactivated by the disinfectant (limit of enumeration [LOE] reached)
and ratios could not be determined.

b

It is important to note that the results shown in this study
are limited to the organisms included, the use of selective
media (which may prevent recovery of injured cells),
presence of laminated surfaces, the QAC product chosen, and
the use of terry-cloth bar towels. Because we did not account
for injured cells, our results could have underestimated
surviving populations on the surfaces and in the bucket
water, meaning that the number of organisms transferred
from one surface to another, and into the bucket solution,
could have been higher. Future studies using nonselective
medium or increasing the incubation time on selective
medium would be an appropriate next step. In addition, it
was not possible to standardize wiping pressure because of
the large surface area of the surfaces studied. We also did not
measure the concentration of the QAC after it was prepared
(although we did follow manufacturer's instructions) because
we were attempting to simulate a real-life scenario as much as
possible. Front-of-house retail food service employees are not
likely to measure QAC concentration in prepared solutions,
and if they did, there is no record of the accuracy of those
measurements. Although measuring the active ingredient
concentration in studies such as these is not always common,
measuring the QAC concentration, especially after the
addition of soil, would have been interesting, but was

400

Food Protection Trends November/December

outside the scope of this study. It has also been shown that
the efficacy of QACs can be reduced by cloth towels (5),
and that effect was not characterized in the current study.
Some common practices also include a cleaning step before
disinfection, and a cleaning step was not characterized here.
Hence, this study only evaluated disinfection, although it
should be noted that the surfaces were very clean, with the
exception of a very small amount of inoculum, at the onset
of the experiments. Further method-development studies to
optimize and standardize wiping actions, such as pressure
on larger surfaces, are warranted, as discussed in Sattar and
Maillard (14), as well as those that investigated the effect of
cleaning a surface before disinfection, and how QACs are
affected by cloth towels in this scaled-up model.
The data for the microbial concentrations in bucket
solutions after wiping are provided in (Table 2). Note that,
when organisms were present and not inactivated by the
QAC, their concentrations were very high and represented
>85% of the initial inoculum enumerated from the positive
control surface. In all cases, high concentrations of the
microbes were detected in the control (PBS) bucket solutions
after wiping. This suggests that the absence of disinfectant use
in cloth and bucket cleaning protocols could result in survival
of vegetative bacteria, viruses, and spores, some of which



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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