Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411

TABLE 2. Presumptive load of BC and Bacillus count in commercial cricket powdersa

Brand
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

Presumptive BC
Sample 1

Sample 2

−
−
+
−
++
++
++
+

+
+
+
+
++
++
+
+

Bacillus count
Avg
1.76
1.50
2.64
1.00
3.23
3.54
2.17
1.46

BC, Bacillus cereus. Bacillus count given as log CFU/g. −, absent; +, present (up to 2 CFU per plate); ++, high (3 or more CFU per plate).

a

2018 study that analyzed commercial Gryllodes sigillatus,
revealed levels of Bacillus spp. similar to those documented
in this work (13, 20). The earlier study also conclusively
identified the presence of B. cereus in commercial cricket
powder produced in Europe. G. sigillatus contained lower
levels of Enterobacteriaceae, despite higher water activity.
Most notably, processing (including drying and smoking)
was associated with significant increases in both total
viable count and spores (20). However, the extent to which
processing practices may affect the microbial quality of the
finished product is difficult to ascertain due in part to the
significant differences in multiple counts observed across
lots of product from the same manufacturer, as well as
the inherent variables that can affect the microbial load in
any food processing environment. This phenomenon was
also observed in an analysis of unprocessed, commercially
reared insects (including A. domesticus) conducted in
Belgium, with authors noting that physicochemical
properties were insufficient to explain large differences in
microbial populations within brands across batches (19).
Even though cricket products overwhelmingly dominate
insect products currently available to U.S. consumers,
crickets are not among the most commonly consumed
insects worldwide (21). It is estimated that approximately
2,000 species of insects are currently consumed in
various parts of the world, with the greatest proportions
being composed of beetles and Lepidoptera (e.g., grubs
and caterpillars) (21). Microbiological quality has been
reported to vary significantly among species of insects (6).
Assessments of the relative microbial risks associated with
protein from other species of insects would be wise at this
early stage of the industry. For example, the transmission
of intestinal flukes from the consumption of dragonflies has
been documented (3).

Additionally, risks of nonmicrobial origin, including
bioaccumulation of heavy metals and allergenicity, should
be specifically assessed. These hazards, in particular, may be
associated with the life-cycle stage of the insect at the time
of harvest, a factor that has not been addressed directly in
the published literature. Cross-reactivity of proteins from
highly allergenic foods such as shrimp with various species
of insect have been documented in a number of studies and
is believed to be due in large part to the pan-allergenicity of
invertebrate tropomyosin, as reviewed in van der Fels-Klerx
et al. (18).
Having a more comprehensive understanding of the
hazards associated with entomophagy and standardizing
labeling and processing techniques is paramount for the
establishment of the insect protein industry as a viable
player in today's well-informed and environmentally
conscious market.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Kathy Davis-Dentici for her incomparable
working ethic and laboratory efficiency. This project
was supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch Project
number ME0-21915, through the Maine Agricultural and
Forest Experiment Station. Maine Agricultural and Forest
Experiment Station Publication number 3735.

November/December Food Protection Trends

411



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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