Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414

microbial pathogens, with 1,400 deaths linked to foodborne
pathogens each year (38, 39). In addition, foodborne
illnesses can create tremendous economic costs. It is
estimated that foodborne illnesses cost more than $15.5
billion each year (40).
Statistics show that most of the reported foodborne
illnesses are caused by food service establishments (15,
20). Further investigations of the factors that led to these
foodborne illnesses revealed that the majority of these
cases were associated with improper cooling, reheating,
and holding of foods, inadequate cooking of foods to the
minimum recommended temperature, and lapses of 12 or
more hours between preparation and eating. Furthermore,
the purchasing and receipt of foods from unsafe sources,
cross-contamination of equipment and utensils, and poor
personal hygiene of restaurant employees also contributed
to foodborne illnesses (5, 21, 40).
The typical food delivery outlets, such as commercial
restaurants, are now competing with a significant escalation
of mobile food vendors (19, 26). In 2019, food truck
revenue reached $1 billion dollars in the United States, with
close to 24,000 food trucks in operation (19). Despite their
popularity, food trucks face more food safety challenges
than the traditional brick and mortar establishments due
to the nature of the business. In 2016, 9 of 96 licensed food
trucks in Boston were closed after "on the spot" inspections
had revealed food safety hazards (49).
The environment of a mobile food establishment may not
be ideal in providing personal hygiene accommodations;
for instance, food trucks may not be equipped with a
suitable sink, clean water, and hand soap for handwashing.
Additionally, they also lack hot water that reaches 100°F
for handwashing (30). A study conducted by Chukuezi (4)
showed that street food vendors washed their utensils in
dirty or recycled water when clean water was not accessible.
Furthermore, the lack of restroom facilities, proper
plumbing, and pest control are also challenges that food
truck operators face (30). Food trucks may lack facilities
for proper refrigeration. El-Shenawy et al. (12) have found
that food items that were stored in the food trucks, such
as processed cheese and eggs, were kept at inappropriate
temperatures. Additionally, the close quarters and limited
storage space on a food truck may limit the correct methods
of storage for cleaning agents or other types of chemicals
(46). Vendors may potentially serve high volumes of
consumers at the same time, which, as shown by previous
research (13, 17), can also lead to lower standards of food
safety practices.
Food safety training is one of the plausible ways to
improve food safety knowledge and practices among food
handlers and improve the food safety inspection scores of
restaurants (8, 21, 25, 36). Food service workers who are
knowledgeable about food safety and can correctly practice
food safety skills are critical in the prevention of foodborne

414

Food Protection Trends November/December

illnesses. Previous literature has identified various barriers
in carrying out the proper training of food handlers in
restaurants, including time restraints, poor attitude and
food safety knowledge among food handlers, and limited
access to appropriate resources (3, 10, 36). Limited studies
have investigated food safety training in the food truck
industry.
While commercial restaurants are regulated by specific
food safety guidelines, the nature of a food truck lends
itself to distinctive policies adapted to the unique way the
food is prepared and served. However, there is no uniform
policy in the United States that stipulates how food truck
management secures licensing or food safety certification
or the extent of food safety training for the parties involved
(48). Before any recommendations can be made to improve
food handling practices among food truck vendors, more
research needs to be done to gather a more holistic picture
of food handling practices by food truck vendors and their
current food safety training needs. Therefore, the objective
of this qualitative study was to explore food truck owners'
and managers' attitudes toward food safety training, the
challenges of providing food safety training, and the
preferred food safety training methods. The study also
investigated food safety practices and concerns unique to
the food truck business.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study protocol (13-407 EP 1402) was approved by
the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Auburn University,
in the state of Alabama.
Sampling
Both focus groups and individual face-to-face interviews
were used for data collection to gather a wide array of
insights from the food truck owners and managers. To be
considered for the focus groups and face-to-face interviews,
the food truck operation needed to be in business for
at least 5 years, thereby demonstrating both sufficient
experience and success in operating the food trucks.
Focus groups
Academia has seen an increasing use of focus group
interviews in research because of its ability to bring
forward spontaneous and expressive views by the research
participants on a particular subject (23). This study adopted
this approach and used a nondirective style of interviewing
to encourage a variety of viewpoints (23, 34). Through
county websites, the locations of 150 food trucks were
identified in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. A random
cluster sampling approach was used to narrow the sample
to 50 food truck owners and managers. Each of these food
truck owners and managers received an initial information
letter from the researchers. The participants who responded
and agreed to participate were sent several emails to



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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