Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415

confirm their availability. The focus groups then took place
at a hotel conference center convenient to the majority of
the participants.
Face-to-face interviews
In addition to focus groups, face-to-face interviews
were conducted with owners and managers of food trucks
to gather a wider array of viewpoints. These food truck
owners and managers who participated in the present
study were from the following major cities: Atlanta, GA;
Birmingham, AL; Miami, FL; and San Francisco, CA. The
majority of these cities were chosen as they have food truck
associations; San Francisco was included because the city is
an established food truck municipality. Websites of the food
truck associations contain details regarding the association's
mission, sponsored events, and contact information
regarding the food truck members. The researchers first
browsed through these websites and contacted the potential
participants via email. Next, one of the researchers traveled
to the sites of the food trucks to interview the owners and
managers who agreed to participate in the interviews.
Data collection for focus groups and face-to-face
interviews
The questions for focus groups and face-to-face
interviews were developed based on previous literature on
food safety, food truck laws and regulations, and food safety
training programs (1, 16). Questions were identical for all
the participants. The questions were reviewed for content
validity by three experts in the food service industry and
then pilot tested for clarity with two food truck owners;
these two owners did not participate in the final study.
Semistructured interviews were used for final data
collection both for focus groups and face-to-face interviews.
Semistructured interviews allowed the researchers to
ask the predetermined set of questions. However, this
method also allowed the participants to provide trajectory
information that strayed away from the preset questions if
they felt such information was relevant (7). Examples of the
predetermined questions included participants' thoughts
and opinions towards food safety training (i.e., general
attitudes, challenges, and training methods) and food
safety practices in the food truck setting. Table 1 presents
the questions asked during the semistructured interviews.
Before data collection started, all participants completed a
consent form and were assigned pseudonyms. Each focus
group lasted an average of 35 min, while each interview
lasted an average of 18 min. All sessions were audio
recorded for transcribing.
Data analysis
Data gathered from focus groups and face-to-face
interviews were transcribed by the researchers. The
information was then uploaded to the qualitative data

analysis software program, ATlas.ti. Miles and Huberman
(28) pointed out that computer-aided analysis can make
procedures more systematic, ensure completeness and
refinement, and increase reliability. The researchers then
read through the transcriptions to develop a list of tentative
codes for each of the interview and focus group questions.
"Coding" is a process of aggregating and categorizing text
in order to identify different themes (28). This process
is common in qualitative research and is used to avoid
data overload and allow a greater focus on answering the
targeted research questions (28). The "families" editing
option then created axial codes at the second level of
coding. Axial codes are defined as "passages identified by
a user-defined set of codes representing concepts from the
data that were in common" (14). From this point, coding
subthemes were developed by consolidation of second-level
codes by the researchers.
RESULTS
Demographics of the participants
A total of 21 food truck owners and managers
participated in the five focus groups. Each focus group
consisted of four to five participants. Fifteen participants
(71.4%) were owners of the food trucks, and the remaining
6 (28.6%) were food truck managers. Each participant
has worked in other areas of the food and beverage sector,
including restaurants, catering, and dining services in
hospitals.
A total of 25 face-to-face interviews were conducted in
four different cities as follows: Birmingham, AL (n = 5);
Miami, FL (n = 5); San Francisco, CA (n = 5); and Atlanta,
GA (n = 10). This sample included managers (n = 15)
and owners (n = 10) that have been operating in the food
truck industry for at least five years. The trucks operated by
these owners and managers were part of a franchise (60%)
or independently owned (40%). Sixty percent of these
owners and managers have other food service experience in
addition to the food truck sector, while forty percent have
worked exclusively in the food truck sector.
Food safety training: certifications, attitudes, and
methods
All focus group participants indicated that they had
received prior food safety training. However, only 17
(80.9%) of them had provided food safety training to their
employees, mostly through ServSafe training. Maintaining
an up-to-date food safety certification and recertification
were viewed as important to the participants as food
truck owners and managers. However, they felt that it
was not their responsibility to keep up to date with food
safety certification and training. Four participants (19%)
mentioned that it should be up to the city to provide
notification as to when certification for training is necessary
and when to attend the training sessions.

November/December Food Protection Trends

415



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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