Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420

managers discussed an example of their circumstances. In
their service location, the law states that food trucks are
only required to park within two hundred feet of a public
restroom and are not required to have a handwashing sink
on the truck. Therefore, this particular regulation poses a
challenge to park close enough to a public restroom and
allow employees ample time to be able to walk off the truck
and wash their hands. Some participants (14%) have come
up with another solution, which is to allow their employees
to use hand sanitizer instead of washing their hands.
Food truck food safety practices and concerns: Permits
The discussion by five of the participants further
emphasized the issue of permits and licenses (20%).
The participants stated that it was a struggle to meet the
regulations while operating within multiple municipalities;
therefore, the preference is to operate in a municipality
with less stringent regulations. In addition, several cities
and communities within a county have different criteria
in issuing a permit, making it difficult to run a food truck
while being in compliance with all mandated rules. Many
municipalities have enforced heavy fines on food truck
operators who failed to follow rules of obtaining permits,
which is discouraging to owners. Several participants (20%)
discussed the lack of city or county health officials who
inspect their food trucks on a regular basis. In this case, a
fire department was mentioned by owners and managers as
the entity that does the inspection on food trucks.
DISCUSSION
Food truck operations continue to grow throughout
the United States, but evidence showed that many food
trucks violated critical control points that contributed
to foodborne illnesses (46). Consequently, a proactive
approach in the awareness and prevention of foodborne
illness in this sector of the food service industry is needed.
This study explored food safety training in the food truck
industry, including the food truck owners' and managers'
attitudes toward food safety training, the challenges to
training, and the current and preferred training methods.
This study also sought to identify food safety practices and
concerns specific to the food truck sector.
ServSafe is a food safety certification program commonly
used by the participants. However, the majority of
municipalities only accept the ServSafe course certification
administered in a classroom setting (11), which the
participants found to be an inconvenience. Attending
ServSafe is sometimes considered a hardship, as it not
only may reduce business revenue but is perceived by the
participants to be costly. The participants indicated that
they only went through recertification every five years, as
required by the law.
The attitudes of food service operators towards food
safety has a significant impact on the food safety culture

420

Food Protection Trends November/December

with reference to the operations and implementation of
food safety programs (18). Previous research has shown
that positive management attitudes towards food safety
training provided employees assurance to perform their job
correctly, which could result in decreasing the number of
foodborne illnesses (2, 13, 22, 24, 29). Roberts and Barrett
(35) found that restaurant managers realize the benefits of
food safety training, including how it may ensure that safe
food is served to customers, maintain the reputation of
their operations, and increase their employees' awareness
towards food safety protocol. The findings of the present
study supported the value of food safety training as a means
to increase the confidence, knowledge, and skills of food
handlers to provide and serve safe food to their customers.
The participants utilized various food safety training
methods in their food truck operations, including roleplay, mock situations, and on-the-job training. Training
approaches such as these are conducted on-site and have
been found to improve knowledge retention (47) while
reducing costs related to time. The study found that
participants were interested in a food safety app that allows
training access via a smartphone or tablet. Due to the
mobile nature of the food truck operation, a food safety
app would offer food truck operators greater flexibility to
train their employees. Such a potential app may alleviate the
issue of time restraint and allow employees to quickly access
food safety information and refresh their knowledge at their
convenience. Additionally, participants used visual aids to
emphasize and reinforce food safety awareness with their
employees. Visual aids are useful reminders that operators
can post to foster food safety practices (40). Food safety
apps and visual aids that are user-friendly and tailored to
the needs of the food truck industry may be created to
increase food safety training about food truck operation.
The participants in this study indicated that attention
needs to be paid to several food safety practices unique to
food truck operations, concerning such topics as cleaning,
handwashing, equipment, permits, and inspections,
concerns which were consistent with previous literature
(30, 31, 41, 46). Regarding cleaning, participants
commented that thorough cleaning of food trucks is
important to keep pests away. Several cities or counties have
taken extra effort to prevent issues with pests. The cities
of Denver, CO, and Los Angeles, CA, and the District of
Columbia require food trucks to have a permanent sliding
screen on their serving window in order to keep pests from
entering the truck (5, 7, 9, 11). The storage of materials and
placement of items is another critical facet of food safety.
Food trucks have limited space, thereby posing a dilemma
in finding adequate storage for necessary materials. One
participant stated, "The layout of the truck and space make
storing of chemicals a challenge." Another participant
commented, "Unlike a restaurant that can have a dedicated
room, we have to ensure it is safe on the truck." According



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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