Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421

to the FDA Food code, chemical substances used for
cleaning and maintenance must be stored away from food
(43, 44), which could be a challenge for food trucks with
limited space. A carefully designed layout in the food truck
is crucial to maximize the use of limited space.
Handwashing remains another top food safety concern.
For example, it is difficult to maintain the proper
temperature of water for handwashing. Many food truck
operations depend on an electric generator to power
equipment and to heat water to the necessary temperature
for the requirements in food preparation. As stated by one
participant, "Generator at certain sizes can't run a cooler,
flat top and water heater for handwashing." Because of
this, many participants opted to use hand sanitizer for
hand cleaning, even though hand sanitizer is not a suitable
substitute for handwashing. The FDA Food Code (42, 43,
44) states that hands must be washed at a temperature of
100°F and specifies that the use of hand sanitizer may be
applied in addition to handwashing. Participants were aware
of these requirements but stated that they could not always
be in compliance with these standards, which is similar
to findings by Samapundo et al. (37) that showed proper
handwashing did not always occur. Moreover, outdoor
environments can create a problem when addressing the
handwashing requirement due to the lack of running
water on food trucks, as well as having the proper water
temperature for handwashing and sanitizing utensils
and cookware (27, 32, 46). As stated in previous studies,
handwashing is a critical area to be emphasized because of
its value in reducing foodborne illness (15, 17).
Equipment modification was another unique area
identified by the food truck owners and managers as essential
to the food truck sector. A few participants indicated that
they modified equipment to meet the needs of their business,
even though the modification may not meet the approved
standards set by the FDA. In certain locations where food
trucks operate, the food preparation and cooking equipment
in the food trucks must be inspected by the fire department.
The fire department will take notice of any defects in the
modified equipment, but not a health inspector. Because of
this, the modified equipment may not meet the food safety
requirements for equipment, such as reaching the correct
temperature for handwashing, coolers holding the right
temperature for cold food, or heating food to the proper
temperature (31). Additionally, an increase in self-modified
equipment causes concern in the area of fire safety. The lack
of standards and ineffective inspections is a public safety
concern because food truck explosions from propane tanks
have occurred in several cities in the United States, especially
for those trucks that are unlicensed and have modified
equipment (32). Regular inspection and monitoring from
both health inspectors and fire marshals are recommended
to make sure the modified equipment meets the standards to
reduce food safety issues and fire hazards.

The power supply on a food truck is a unique challenge
that is not guaranteed as the vehicles could be on the move
and must solely rely on the generators (31). This could
increase the risk of foodborne illness, as statistics showed
that food trucks with malfunctioning refrigeration units
and improper handwashing were major causes of foodborne
illness (24, 31, 46).
The present study revealed that routine inspections in the
food truck sector are not being performed regularly. The
mobile nature of a food truck makes it difficult for health
inspectors to locate the food truck while it is in operation.
Locating the food trucks is a time-consuming process which
adds additional work hours for health inspectors (46). On
average, brick and mortar businesses are inspected every
6 months by the health department (44). However, food
trucks may not be inspected with the same frequency; in
fact, in the present study, a few participants stated that they
have yet to be inspected by health inspectors. This finding
was similar to previous research by Vanschaik and Tuttle
(46). These investigators found that the food trucks were
inspected when they were not in operation, and therefore,
it was not possible to evaluate food and water safety risk
factors associated with the food trucks. Routine inspections
are necessary in order to protect the general public from
health risks, and if food safety violations are reported,
further investigations should take place to determine the
root cause of these violations.
Limitations and recommendations for future research
The limitations of the study include the following. The
majority of the participants in the focus group interviews
were from the southeastern region of the United States,
and the participants in the face-to-face interviews were
from four cities (i.e., Atlanta, Birmingham, Miami, and
San Francisco). Due to geographical limitations and
lack of consistency in the laws in the food truck sector
throughout the country (48), the results of the study
should be cautiously generalized beyond this geographic
region. Future studies may include food truck owners
and managers from a broader geographical base in order
to gain a larger perspective concerning the issues related
to food safety training and practices in this sector of the
food service industry. In addition, the sample size was
small because some food truck operators did not provide
their correct contact information on the websites, or their
business operation may have been suspended during the
data collection period. Future studies may utilize a different
sampling method, such as snowball sampling, to recruit
more participants. It should be noted that certification of
food safety was self-reported. Even though focus groups and
face-to-face interviews provide the advantage of allowing
researchers to observe social cues and body language of
the interviewees (34), the results of this study may be
affected by social desirability. A future study may include

November/December Food Protection Trends

421



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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