Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 424

PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE

Kevin R. Roberts,*1 Kevin Sauer,1
Paola Paez1 and Michelle Alcorn2

Food Protection Trends, Vol 40, No. 6, p. 424-434
Copyright© 2020, International Association for Food Protection
2900 100th Street, Suite 309, Des Moines, IA 50322-3855

Center for Food Safety in Child Nutrition
Programs, Kansas State University,
148 Justin Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
2
Dept. of Hospitality and Retail Management,
Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41240,
Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
1

Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior
to Determine Food Safety Behavioral
Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to use the theory of
planned behavior to compare beliefs about three food
safety practices between two groups of school nutrition
employees: those who absolutely intended to practice
each behavior versus those who did not. A questionnaire
was used for data collection, and 3,850 surveys were
mailed to 163 participating school districts. Data from
408 usable surveys were analyzed, for a response rate of
10.6%. For each of the three behaviors, participants with
less than absolute intentions were less likely to think that
following proper practices in each of the three behaviors
would decrease the chance that students would get sick,
would ensure high food quality, and would keep students
satisfied. For the three behaviors, people important to
employees, such as the school nutrition director and
supervisor, were identified by lower intenders as not being
as supportive of their food safety efforts when compared
with the beliefs among absolute intenders. In all instances,
absolute intenders perceived stronger lack of control
(i.e., a lower score) than did lower intenders. This study

provides a theory-based investigation of how attitudes,
subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls affect
food safety behaviors in the school nutrition environment.

INTRODUCTION
Through the National School Lunch Program, School
Breakfast Program, and Summer Food Service Program,
7.5 billion meals and snacks are served annually across the
United States (28). Originally, child nutrition programs were
formed to combat child hunger, but today the programs also
provide local agencies and communities with significant
support and resources to deliver healthy meals to children
(29). Considering the vast number of meals and snacks
served through these programs, following recommended food
safety behaviors could minimize the incidence of large-scale
foodborne outbreaks, which would have serious implications
for schools, school nutrition employees, and the children
involved (29).
Foodborne illness continues to be a major public health
concern in the United States. Foodborne pathogens
account for more than 9.4 million cases of illness, 55,000

*Author for correspondence: Phone: +1 785.532.5507; Fax: +1 785.532.5522; Email: kevrob@ksu.edu

424

Food Protection Trends November/December


http://www.foodprotection.org/files/food-protection-trends/nov-dec-20-roberts.pdf

Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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