Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427

FIGURE 2. USDA FNS regional offices: MARO, Mid-Atlantic; MWRO, Midwest; MPRO,
Mountain Plains; NERO, Northeast; SERO, Southeast; SWRO, Southwest; WRO, Western.

Each school district was provided with an introduction
letter, questionnaires, and business reply envelopes to
facilitate return of the questionnaires. The introduction letter,
addressed to school nutrition directors, explained the purpose
of the study and requested distribution of the questionnaire
among employees. All school nutrition employees, except the
director, were invited to participate. Following Dillman's (9)
recommendation, a follow-up postcard was sent to prompt
nonrespondents to complete the questionnaire. Postcards were
sent by email to those with email addresses and by postal mail
to those with no email address listed on the school district's
website. A second reminder postcard was sent to those with
email addresses 2 weeks after the first reminder.
Data analysis
Returned questionnaires were coded, and the data were
processed and analyzed with the Statistical Package for
Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY).
Descriptive statistics were analyzed for frequencies, means,
and standard deviations. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure
internal consistency with a threshold of 0.70 (8).
For the direct measures of attitude, perceived behavioral
control, subjective norm, and behavioral intention, principal
axis factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on
the constructs independently. Using a minimum eigenvalue
of 1.0, one factor was extracted for each of the three measures.
Further analysis enabled comparison of absolute intenders
(those who absolutely intended to perform the behavior) to
other intenders that were not absolute. To assess differences

between absolute intenders (behavioral belief score of 7.0 on
a 7-point scale) and those who did not intend to perform the
behavior, a series of t-tests were conducted for each behavior.
RESULTS
A total of 3,850 surveys were sent to participating school
districts, and 580 surveys were returned. Of the 580 returned
surveys, 172 were excluded because of patterned responses
or missing data, resulting in 408 usable surveys, for a usable
response rate of 10.6%. According to Dillman (9), the number
of completed responses obtained (408) still achieved a 95%
confidence level with a ±5% sampling error. The response
rate is also comparable to that in previous research conducted
by Sneed and Patten (26), Sauer et al. (23), and Grisamore
and Roberts (12), who obtained response rates of 7, 9, and
14%, respectively. The representability of the findings was
improved given the standardization and homogeneity of
practices and procedures found across schools, regardless
of location or size. For example, school nutrition programs
practices were homogenous because of national compliance
with the standards published in the Child Nutrition and WIC
Reauthorization legislation (27).
Of the 163 districts that were invited to participate, 43
districts were represented in the final sample. All states that
were invited to participate were included in the final sample;
thus, all USDA FNS regions were represented. Most of the
returned surveys were from large (41%) and medium (36%)
school districts and 18% were from small districts; no completed
surveys were returned from the mega school districts.

November/December Food Protection Trends

427



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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