Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429

TABLE 2. Measures (t-tests) of belief for absolute versus lower intenders across all food
safety practicesa
Belief itemb

Behavioral beliefs
Decrease the likelihood that
students will get sick
Ensure high food quality
Keep my students satisfied
Take too much time
Normative beliefs
Health inspector
Immediate supervisor
School nutrition director
School nurse
School administrators
Teachers
Other employees
Parents
My student
Control beliefs
Time
Lack of supplies
Lack of equipment
Funds
Access to equipment

Proper Cleaning and
Sanitizing of Food
Contact Surfaces

Proper Handwashing

Using a Thermometer
to Check the Temperature
of Food

Lower
Intender
(n = 60)

Absolute
Intender
(n = 348)

Lower
Intender
(n = 57)

Absolute
Intender
(n = 351)

Lower
Intender
(n = 70)

Absolute
Intender
(n = 337)

18.88 ± 3.54

20.35 ± 4.12*

18.88 ± 3.70

20.68 ± 2.09*

18.67 ± 4.55

20.96 ± 0.54*

15.28 ± 6.21
12.05 ± 7.10
1.56 ± 4.48

17.10 ± 7.07*
14.49 ± 7.91*
1.05 ± 5.39

15.81 ± 5.64
12.75 ± 6.85
2.05 ± 7.57

18.51 ± 5.44*
16.59 ± 6.69*
1.01 ± 5.60

17.19 ± 5.49
12.99 ± 7.35
1.19 ± 6.46

19.90 ± 3.53*
17.12 ± 6.57*
1.66 ± 7.32

19.75 ± 3.76
19.08 ± 3.96
18.40 ± 4.60
16.90 ± 5.35
16.22 ± 6.43
15.62 ± 6.47
15.54 ± 5.88
14.98 ± 5.90
11.34 ± 7.45

20.87 ± 1.07*
20.51 ± 2.49 *
20.25 ± 3.30*
19.35 ± 4.46*
18.86 ± 5.00*
18.33 ± 5.40*
18.18 ± 5.34*
18.67 ± 5.07*
15.27 ± 7.80*

18.82 ± 4.72
17.68 ± 4.38
15.56 ± 5.16
16.93 ± 5.25
16.37 ± 5.63
15.14 ± 5.51
14.91 ± 6.38
14.14 ± 5.56
12.68 ± 6.77

20.90 ± 0.96*
20.72 ± 1.57 *
20.44 ± 2.89*
20.13 ± 3.15*
19.76 ± 3.72*
19.38 ± 4.06*
19.60 ± 3.88*
19.16 ± 4.63*
17.81 ± 6.16*

18.83 ± 4.74
18.04 ± 4.26
17.30 ± 5.51
15.10 ± 6.13
15.13 ± 6.17
12.83 ± 6.49
14.93 ± 6.29
12.39 ± 6.22
10.68 ± 7.19

20.84 ± 1.19*
20.79 ± 1.37*
20.52 ± 2.65*
19.41 ± 4.39*
19.08 ± 4.84*
17.74 ± 6.31*
19.61 ± 3.65*
17.77 ± 6.20*
16.11 ± 7.83*

-1.45 ± 8.03
-1.65 ± 8.99
-1.97 ± 7.86
-2.02 ± 7.79
-2.20 ± 7.69

-3.91 ± 8.58*
-4.21 ± 7.83*
-4.24 ± 7.54*
-3.80 ± 6.55
-4.31 ± 7.45*

-2.39 ± 8.41
-3.07 ± 7.51
-2.91 ± 7.34
-2.88 ± 7.27
-1.02 ± 5.44

-6.32 ± 13.20*
-5.71 ± 7.35*
-5.58 ± 6.98*
-5.22 ± 6.46*
-2.36 ± 3.87*

-3.06 ± 7.99
-3.45 ± 8.49
-3.20 ± 7.91
-3.13 ± 7.41
-2.93 ± 8.37

-6.18 ± 6.97*
-5.58 ± 7.29*
-5.23 ± 6.83*
-5.27 ± 5.97*
-5.19 ± 6.93*

Values are means ± SD (t-tests) and represent the strength of each individual item (scale of 1 to 7) multiplied by the evaluation
of that item (scale of -3 to 3). Possible scores range from -21 to 21. Asterisks indicate a significant difference between lower and
absolute intenders (P ≤ 0.05).
b
Behavioral beliefs: beliefs that a behavior will generate a certain consequence; these beliefs are linked to a person's attitude toward
the behavior (3). Normative beliefs: beliefs that important individuals or groups have expectations for a person's behavior; these
beliefs are linked to a person's subjective norms (3). Control beliefs: beliefs in the existence of barriers and facilitators that impact
the performance of a behavior; these beliefs are linked to a person's perceived behavioral control.
a

Control beliefs
For control beliefs, respondents were asked how often not
having the item affects their ability to perform each of the three
food safety behaviors on the above scale. All control belief
means for each of the three food safety practices were negative
and just slightly lower than zero, meaning that all respondents

felt they were not in control of following the recommended
practice for each of the food safety behaviors. Results slightly
below zero indicate that this feeling was not strong but still
indicated a perceived lack of control.
Comparisons between absolute and lower intenders differed
for the three behaviors related to control beliefs. Analysis of

November/December Food Protection Trends

429



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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