Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443

TABLE 2. Responses to questions about the suitability of the training program and how
participant responses changed over time
% (no.) of responses

Adequacy of curriculum change over time

P-value
(Wald χ2)a

Yes

No

Were any learning objectives or critical concepts unclear?
Were any learning objectives or critical concepts missing?
Were any learning objectives or critical concepts unnecessary?
Is the amount of teaching notes sufficient to support you and the participants in the course?

22 (160)
13 (103)
7 (50)
92 (725)

78 (567)
87 (663)
94 (720)
8 (64)

0.807
0.584
0.072
0.654

Are there any other educational materials that should be included or referenced in
the training?

35 (256)

66 (486)

0.007*

Was the level of FSMA Produce Safety Rule information provided in the curriculum
materials sufficient to guide produce growers in understanding and implementing the
regulatory requirements?

87 (683)

13 (101)

0.5

Was the curriculum well balanced in terms of providing GAPs guidance as well as FSMA
Produce Safety Rule requirements?

89 (670)

11 (83)

0.071

Were the training protocol, PSA Lead Trainer review process, and course logistics clear?
Did the course prepare you well to use this curriculum to train growers?
Is there additional assistance that the PSA can provide to facilitate a successful training?

96 (728)
95 (731)
39 (253)

4 (27)
5 (36)
61 (401)

0.805
0.046*
0.003*

Asterisk indicates a significant change in response over time.

a

Most participants agreed that the level of FSMA PSR
information provided was sufficient to guide growers in
understanding and implementing requirements (87%
agreed) and that the curriculum was well balanced in terms
of providing guidance for GAPs and PSR requirements
(89% agreed). Initially, the amount of GAPs content
interspersed within the regulatory requirements was
identified as a concern by some collaborators. The PSA
Steering and Executive Committees felt strongly that
GAPs should be included in the curriculum so that PSA
Grower Training attendees would understand the basic
principles and science supporting the established regulatory
provisions. Separate analysis of evaluation data from PSA
Grower Training Courses revealed that over half (57%) of
participants had never previously attended a training on
GAPs or produce safety, meaning that they relied on the
PSA course to provide an introduction to produce safety
basics and regulatory requirements (n = 10,703) (3). A
basic principle of adult education is that learners need
to understand the reasoning behind new information if
they are to be motivated to learn the content (6). Adult
education theory supports the inclusion of GAPs with
regulatory requirements so that growers develop an
understanding of why the regulatory requirements reduce
food safety risks.

Most participants (95%) reported that the course
prepared them well to teach the curriculum to growers.
This percentage significantly increased over time (P =
0.046). Estimated marginal means analysis predicted
that by 24 April 2017, 98% of participants indicated that
the PSA Train-the-Trainer Course prepared them well
to teach the PSA Grower Training Course. This small
but significant increase of 3% may be due to several
factors: over time PSA Trainers of Trainers, who lead
PSA Train-the-Trainer Courses, developed the ability
to better answer participant questions on the spot,
provide more resources, and connect participants with a
support network to help them succeed once the training
was completed. Of those attendees who indicated that
they were not ready to teach the course, 18 individuals
(2.52%) intended to become PSA Lead Trainers. For
these individuals, the additional resources developed and
cotraining opportunities will be beneficial for assisting
them to become ready to serve as a PSA Lead Trainer.
Participants commented that co-training and mentorship opportunities would be beneficial to their development as PSA Lead Trainers. As the training rolled out, a
network of trainers and mentors was formed across the
country, and the PSA continues to regularly connect new
trainers with those willing to mentor. The PSA Regional
Extension Associates prioritized their participation in PSA

November/December Food Protection Trends

443



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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