Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457

immerse clients in designs from a first-person point of
view, gaining improved spatial impressions and customer
experience (15).
The popularity of VR headsets for entertainment and
gaming has reduced their cost, which could in turn bring
about novel opportunities to enhance food protection
research, although this technology may not be suitable for
wide-scale domestic food safety education of consumers
because ownership of VR headsets is not commonplace.
Nevertheless, given the affordability and portability of VR
headsets, this technology could be used as an educational
tool to facilitate training in the food manufacturing industry.
VR technology can replicate a real environment, which
is beneficial when the representative environment is not
easily accessible or when delivery of training could be an
inconvenience for people working in that area. For example,
one-to-one training on procedures in high-risk or highcare food manufacturing environments could be delivered
using VR technology. Because variables are controlled, this
ensures the reliability and repeatability of the training and
can allow comparison of awareness between participants
or changes in awareness of participants over time. VR
technology has been used to present trainees with scenarios
designed to teach important lessons with the goal of
meeting Food Safety Modernization Act standards. The
data obtained with VR technology can be used to plan
future training sessions according to identified areas of
difficulty among trainees (86).
VR-based training could be superior to classroombased training because of the feelings of immersion and
presence, which can trigger an emotional response (9,
84) and thus aid in learning and memory (101). The use
of VR environments in health and safety training has had
better outcomes for changing attitudes and awareness
than those achieved with PowerPoint-based training
methods (60). The Corrupt Kitchen VR environment was
designed to explore attitudes toward workplace corruption.
However, the design, development, and creation of the VR
environment was very detailed and lengthy (103-106). The
potential usability, impact, effectiveness, and acceptability
of VR-based food safety training in food industry environments need further study.
AR technology
Augmented reality (AR) is often confused with VR
because both technologies are computer generated.
Unlike VR technology (an interactive computer-generated
experience taking place within a simulated environment),
AR technology superimposes a computer-generated image
on the user's view of the real world (25). This approach
allows people to add digital information to their physical
world without having to immerse themselves into a virtual
replacement of an actual environment. Thus, users of AR
technology can interact in real time with computer-generated

objects within their actual physical environment (3). AR
technology is widely used in smartphone applications.
For example, computer-generated filters and effects can
be applied over real-life images on social media platforms
(Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook, etc.), enabling users to give
visual expressions (79).
AR application for food safety education and training
Popular smartphone-based AR games such as Pokémon
Go (a GPS location-based AR game) are unique because
they combine the physical and virtual world in one interface,
which encourages exercise, socialization, and outdoor activity
(89). AR is often used to give an interactive experience in
museums (54, 73). In addition to use with smartphones, AR
technology can be experienced with AR wearables such as
smart glasses (80), which have been utilized in construction
and high-end manufacturing (67).
AR technology also can enhance digital shopping
experiences and sales (32, 33). Consumers can download
AR smartphone applications that enable the prepurchase
visualization of products by placing virtual content
(e.g., new furniture) in a real environment (e.g., image
of the consumer's home) (83), which has a positive
impact on consumers and e-commerce vendors (12, 49).
AR technologies have also been applied in health care
environments (98) as cognitive aids for people in the
early stages of memory loss (50) and as tools to improve
competencies, learning, or critical thinking in health
care education by providing an authentic and engaging
experience (18, 126). Application of AR technology in
education could be used to engage, stimulate, and motivate
students, to help teach subjects for which real-world firsthand experience is not feasible, and to create an authentic
learning environment suitable to various learning styles
(125). However, successful design, development, and
application of AR educational technology requires a
framework driven by learning theory (127).
Games and activities are commonly used in consumer food
safety educational campaigns, particularly those targeted at
children (40, 74, 88). Given the widespread ownership of
smartphones, consumer food safety campaigns using AR
technology may be an alternative approach for food safety
educators. Beck et al. (6) discussed the potential application
of AR in the food industry to enhance the training of new
employees and suggested that AR could enable employees
to locate supplies or identify objects and could provide a
technological alternative to the presence of a mentor. Ryznar
(87) suggested that AR technology could transform food
service and food production facilities by improving speed,
quality, efficiency, consistency, traceability, and training. In
food manufacturing environments, AR technology could be
used to visualize and understand the importance of cleaning
and how pathogens grow in such environments and how
bacterial niches are established.

November/December Food Protection Trends

457



Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020

Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Characterizing Microbial Cross-Contamination on Large Surfaces Using a Traditional “Cloth and Bucket” Disinfection Method
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Sanitation Monitoring of Stainless Steel Surfaces with a Test for Total Adenylates
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 403
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Variability in the Microbial Profile of Retail Cricket Powders in the U.S. Retail Market
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 409
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Exploring Food Truck Food Safety Training and Practices in the United States: A Qualitative Study
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 419
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Determine Food Safety Behavioral Intentions among Child Nutrition Employees
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 430
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Produce Safety Alliance Train-the-Trainer Course: Developing Trainers to Support Fruit and Vegetable Growers
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 438
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 441
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 445
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Beyond the Bio Manpreet Singh
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - PDG Highlight Food Packaging Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - General Interest Paper Food Safety and Quality Data Management Using Artificial Intelligence
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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