Battery Power - November/December 2013 - (Page 28)

Feature Charging Forward: A Resurgence of the EV Movement and the Role Charging Infrastructure Plays in Continuing the Momentum Brendan Jones, Director of EV Charging Infrastructure Strategy and Deployment Nissan The concept of zero-emissions mobility has been around for more than a century, when electric vehicles (EVs) outsold gaspowered cars. About 33,000 EVs are on the roads in the US, but the perception that EVs aren't for everyone still exists. Recent data from the US Department of Energy shows that the adoption curve for EVs is actually accelerating at a faster pace than that of hybrid vehicles. EVs: Then and Now The first EV hit the ground in the 1830s when Thomas Davenport invented the direct-current electric motor and put it in a model car, but EVs didn't find their stride until the late 1800s and early 1900s when William Morrison built a six-passenger electric car that could go up to 14 miles per hour. In that same decade, hundreds of electric taxis were roaming the New York City streets. At that time, EVs dominated over gas-powered cars, 38 percent of the cars on the road were electric while only 22 percent were powered by gas; the other 40 percent were steam-powered. EVs had quite a few advantages over their gas-powered counterparts in that they didn't have the vibration, smell or noise, and they did not require gear changes or the manual hand-crank start, which were considered the more difficult and much less attractive aspects of driving. That all changed as the US highway system was developed in the mid-1900s and gas-powered cars gained popularity because of their ability to drive faster and travel longer distances. It wasn't until the energy crises of the 1970s that a renewed interest in EVs was sparked. In 1970, the Federal Clean Car Inventive Program was initiated to encourage automakers to develop low-emission vehicles. Through this program, a prototype vehicle was developed by Petro Electric Motors, Ltd., by using an internal combustion engine/battery hybrid system in a 1972 Buick Skylark. Other companies and independent manufacturers also got into the EV game with cars such as General Electric's GE-100, the Electric Test Vehicle-1 and the ETX-1, the Sebring Vanguard CitiCar and the Elcar 2000. EVs were in the limelight again in the 1990s with the introduction of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) ZeroEmission Vehicle (ZEV) program, which mandated that two percent of the vehicles produced by large manufacturers for sale in California had to be ZEVs, a number that would increase to 10 percent by 2003. In response, several automakers produced all-electric models such as the Toyota RAV4 EV, Honda EV Plus and the more widely known GM EV1, but most of these were only made available to consumers for lease with no option to buy. In the early 2000s, the majority of those cars were returned to manufacturers to be destroyed. That brings us to the past decade, which marks the most significant period for EVs since their success in the early 20th century. In the past few years, new models have been popping up in more product portfolios of both large and small automakers including the Tesla Model S, Mitsubishi i MiEV and the Nissan LEAF. GM also released the Volt that, while it is a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, embodies many of the technologies pioneered by the EV1 about 20 years earlier. Infrastructure: Change Takes Time With EV sales continuing to climb, the conversation is shifting from, "Are EVs a viable transportation option for the mass market?" to, "How are EV drivers going to get enough juice to get them where they need to go?" In the first half of the 20th century, internal combustion (ICE) vehicles faced a similar hurdle during their rise because at Nissan Article Continued on Page 30 Evernote employees enjoy a monthly $250 allowance to lease or buy any vehicle that qualifies them to get a California carpool lane sticker, which reduces the amount of time wasted sitting in traffic. Evernote also installed 10 Level 2 charging stations and one quick charging on its campus to accommodate employees who want to plug in at work. 28 Battery Power * November/December 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Battery Power - November/December 2013

Solid-State Battery Developed at CU-Boulder Could Double the Range of Electric Cars
GS Yuasa Batteries Help Power Orbital Science’s Cygnus Spacecraft on Mission to ISS
Li-Ion Battery Technology Delivers High Power for Data Center UPS Installations
Battery Demands for Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Understanding When and Why You Need UPS Battery Replacement
Charging Forward: A Resurgence of the EV Movement and the Role Charging Infrastructure Plays in Continuing the Momentum
Charging Systems
Testing & Monitoring
ICs & Semiconductors
Industry News

Battery Power - November/December 2013