Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - (Page 26)

GUEST COLUMN pected to seriously challenge Chinese production until 2014. Figure 1 illustrates the relative distribution of RE reserves throughout the world [1]. 97 percent to under 60 percent by 2016. In the West, there is the continued unsubstantiated fear that China will shut off REM products to the world. China can never permit this to happen; it is economic suicide for China’s downstream industries (electronics, motors, automation, etc.) as demonstrated by the recent impact of the REM crisis. In China, there is the perception that their dominance in the RE market is under threat by foreign RE mining activities. The reality is that over the next two decades, China it will need even more REM for its continued economic growth and renewable energy program. Hence, China welcomes foreign RE mining efforts. In short, China does not want further confrontation with those countries involved in the WTO action whom likely could be owners of new REM supply chains, which China will need access to in the near future [2]. In the long-term, as more RE mines come online, REM pricing will decline and stabilize well below current levels. We could see Nd and Dy prices trading at half their current levels as a new norm. However, in the short term, what do you do if you are an applications engineer, purchasing manager or director of operations? The options are, realistically, limited to the 4 R’s: redesign, reduce, recycle, re-assemble. • Redesign without any Nd or Dy, where possible. This option forces one back to either large, heavy designs with ferrite or copper-wound electromagnets, or using alternate RE solutions such as SmCo. Inevitably, any act of commodity substitution will instigate a corresponding pricing increase in ferrite and SmCo materials from Chinese suppliers. The Cobalt in SmCo, in particular, is an even more heavily monopolized element than RE elements, as it resides in only a few mines located in the politically unstable Republic of Congo. Hitachi recently made waves regarding a motor design that eliminates the need for NdFeB. They achieve this through a laminated rotor core that uses low-loss amorphous iron material. Using a disordered atomic structure versus a traditional crystalline structure, the amorphous metal combines high tensile strength with extremely low magnetic losses, 10 percent of conventional electromagnetic steel laminations. However, as with any new technology, the costs of production are prohibitive and yet to be addressed by Hitachi [3]. • Reduce the content of RE, especially Dy in high temperature applications. Yield rates in China are poor because Chinese manufacturers continue to rely heavily on low-cost, wire-cutting machining techniques rather than precision grinding methods. Before the RE crisis, engineers designed for maximum performance instead of required performance. When REM was far cheaper, designers were rather generous with the upside of performance (Remanence and Energy Content). Being more judicious during the design phase can dramatically improve the yield rate. A block design has a far better yield rate than a disc design. A disc design has a far better yield rate than a ring design. Moreover, a designed reduction in working temperature from 150°C to 120°C, can reduce the Dy content from as much as 6 percent to 1.5 percent. At $700/kg, a savings of 4.5 percent Dy is equivalent to halving the cost of the entire magnet. • Recycle the RE in used magnets. This principle has worked well in the area of energy conservation. The reality is that one can only economically recycle alloy and magnets of a known property or grade. Even then, one may still need to recycle “down” to a lower grade than the original, thereby reducing the economic value of the www.MagneticsMagazine.com Figure 1. Securing the Future In March 2012, a number of nations led by the US and Japan, filed a WTO action against China for unfair practices relating to REM supply. The Chinese government denied any wrongdoing but avoided the usual sabre-rattling associated with defending their sovereign rights. This subdued stance would indicate China no longer wants to bear the burden of supplying the rest of the world (ROW). In fact, the Chinese government has stated in recent years that they look to reduce their global market share of REM production from the current Inc. superior performance. powerful technology. A New Generation of SuperPower’d Magnets TM SuperPower® 2G HTS Wire is enabling ultra high field magnets for advancements in research, medical technology and energy applications. We offer high performance conductor for demanding coil applications: ■ Advanced Pinning formulation – maximizes performance over a range of operating fields and temperatures ■ Compact – SuperPower wire is half the thickness of other HTS conductors, resulting in high engineering current density ■ Flexible – suitable for many coil types . . . along with expert engineering services including coil fabrication. Contact us today about our Quick-Ship program 450 Duane Ave. ■ Schenectady, NY 12304 ■ USA Tel: 518-346-1414 ■ Fax: 518-346-6080 www.superpower-inc.com ■ info@superpower-inc.com 26 Magnetics Business & Technology • Summer 2012 http://www.superpower-inc.com http://www.superpower-inc.com http://www.MagneticsMagazine.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012

Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012
Editor's Choice
Injection Molded Magnets for Electrical Machines
The Process of Developing and Testing a New Transformer
Rare Earths & Corporate Social Responsibility
Research & Development
RE-use, RE-duce, RE-cycle, RE-place
Magnets • Materials • Measurement
Application • Component Developments
Industry News
Rare Earth Crisis Dissected: Securing the Future
Marketplace
Advertising Index
Spontaneous Thoughts: The End of Axial Pressing?

Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012

Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - (Page Intro)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 (Page Cover1)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 (Page Cover2)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 (Page 3)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Editor's Choice (Page 4)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Editor's Choice (Page 5)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Injection Molded Magnets for Electrical Machines (Page 6)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Injection Molded Magnets for Electrical Machines (Page 7)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Injection Molded Magnets for Electrical Machines (Page 8)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Injection Molded Magnets for Electrical Machines (Page 9)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - The Process of Developing and Testing a New Transformer (Page 10)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - The Process of Developing and Testing a New Transformer (Page 11)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - The Process of Developing and Testing a New Transformer (Page 12)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Rare Earths & Corporate Social Responsibility (Page 13)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Rare Earths & Corporate Social Responsibility (Page 14)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Rare Earths & Corporate Social Responsibility (Page 15)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Research & Development (Page 16)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - RE-use, RE-duce, RE-cycle, RE-place (Page 17)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - RE-use, RE-duce, RE-cycle, RE-place (Page 18)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - RE-use, RE-duce, RE-cycle, RE-place (Page 19)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - RE-use, RE-duce, RE-cycle, RE-place (Page 20)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Magnets • Materials • Measurement (Page 21)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Application • Component Developments (Page 22)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Application • Component Developments (Page 23)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Industry News (Page 24)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Rare Earth Crisis Dissected: Securing the Future (Page 25)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Rare Earth Crisis Dissected: Securing the Future (Page 26)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Rare Earth Crisis Dissected: Securing the Future (Page 27)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Rare Earth Crisis Dissected: Securing the Future (Page 28)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Advertising Index (Page 29)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Spontaneous Thoughts: The End of Axial Pressing? (Page 30)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Spontaneous Thoughts: The End of Axial Pressing? (Page Cover3)
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2012 - Spontaneous Thoughts: The End of Axial Pressing? (Page Cover4)
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