Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 15

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
sued new efficiency regulations in May 2014 for integral horsepower motors to be effective June 2016. The scope of coverage has been expanded to cover more configurations than in
previous regulations... Motor regulations for Canada and Mexico
generally follow what is adopted in the United States. Europe
is updating succeeding regulations for LV motors (low voltage,
<1,000 V) and drive systems with an extended product approach
due in 2018 to cover from 0.12 to 1,000 kW. The DOE is also
studying pump, fan, and compressor systems and how the system efficiency can/should be regulated." [5]
Figure 2. Implementation of motor efficiency standards by country/
region.
Standard 60034-30-1 includes performance requirements for four
levels of product efficiency. IE5 is currently under development
and not included in the standard. (IE = International Efficiency).
*
IE1: motors with standard efficiency
*
IE2 motors with high efficiency
*
IE3 motors with premium efficiency

Another challenge is meeting motor system test requirements.
While MEPS are now most often based on the motor efficiency
classification and efficiency test methods in IEC Standards, the
process and requirements for certification and compliance vary
greatly from country to country, including test standards, laboratory accreditation, sampling, test process and labelling.
"The IECEE Global Motor Energy Efficiency Programme (GMEE)
addresses the many trade barriers due to these differing country
regulations for motor efficiency, and attempts to set up a globally harmonized and applicable program. The GMEE program
is developed on a strong foundation: a) one recognized motor
efficiency test method (IEC 60034-2-1), b) one test report format,
and c) a common certification process based on the international
IECEE/CB Scheme." [22, 23]
It appears challenging for motor manufacturers to remain current
with domestic regulations and with regulations of those countries
to which they desire to export product.

*
IE4 motors with super-premium efficiency
Figure 3. Efficiency levels in IEC 60034-30-1 for 4-pole motors, 50 Hz
[10]
European countries have adopted the Euro eco-design initiatives
which include the EU MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance
Standard).[15,16,24]
*
2005/32/EC Directive known as the eco-design Directive for Energy using Products (EuP)
*
2009/125/EC (eco-design) Directive for Energy-related
Products (ErP)
Another organization, EMSA (Electric Motor Systems) has published guidelines and policies related to efficiency: 4E (IEA Technology Collaboration Programme); 4E Electric Motor Systems
Annex (EMSA). (Visit www.emsa.org). "4E" is an abbreviation
for Energy Efficient End-Use Equipment. [17] EMSA publications
include:
*
2009: EMSA Motor MEPS Guide
*
2011: EMSA Motor Policy Guide, Part 1
*
2014: EMSA Policy Guidelines for Electric Motor Systems, Part 2
*
2015: 4E Energy efficiency roadmap for electric motors
and motor systems
*
2016: 4E EMSA Policy Guidelines for Motor Driven
Units, Part 1
*
2018: 4E EMSA Policy Guidelines for Motor Driven
Units, Part 2
In the United States: "The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is-

www.MagneticsMag.com

How can motors be made more efficient than they already are?
Efficiency improvements have been designed or predicted based
on changes to motor systems. Some examples are as follows.
*
Motor designs are being refined: minimized air gaps,
maximum copper slot fill, etc.
*
A switch to thinner gauge silicon iron to reduce eddy
current loss
*
Sophisticated electronics for powering and operating
the motor at peak efficiency
*
Increasing use of permanent magnet motors versus
induction (wound field) - see accompanying charts for efficiency
and powder factor comparisons
*
Amorphous materials (e.g., Hitachi Metglas) to achieve
IE5 performance
*
High performance lamination materials (e.g., Co-Fe or
Ni-Fe) for high rpm and totally enclosed motors
*
Matching of motor power output to energy demand in
order to run at peak efficiency
*
Variable speed drive (and control)
"Presently, due to the adoption of minimum energy performance
standards (MEPS) in the majority of the developed countries,
the electric motor market is moving toward Premium (IE3) and
Super-Premium (IE4) efficiency motors. Yet, the motor is just one
of the components of the EMODS, and the overall efficiency of
the latter is strongly dependent on all the system components' efficiency, as well as on the process control strategy (speed/torque
control and feedback from the system/process). The use of
variable-speed drives (VSDs) is a good example leading to large
energy savings in systems requiring variable output." [4]
*
FOC (field-oriented control) adjusts motor speed and
torque for the most efficient operation
*
Hybrid motor designs (e.g., permanent magnet assisted

Summer 2018 * Magnetics Business & Technology

15


http://www.MagneticsMag.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018

Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018
Contents
Editor’s Choice
Magnetic Nanoparticles Leap from Lab Bench to Breast Cancer Clinical Trials
Safran, a Major Player in Plasma Propulsion, Finds Booming Market for its Hall Eff ect Thrusters
NASA Develops Hall-Eff ect Electric Propulsion to Thrust Exploration on into Deep Space
Airbus-built SES-12 Dual-mission Satellite Successfully Launched
Research & Development
Case Study
Product News
Industry News
Marketplace/ Advertising Index
Spontaneous Thoughts: Dysprosium 2.0
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Cover2
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Contents
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Editor’s Choice
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 5
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Magnetic Nanoparticles Leap from Lab Bench to Breast Cancer Clinical Trials
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 7
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Safran, a Major Player in Plasma Propulsion, Finds Booming Market for its Hall Eff ect Thrusters
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 9
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - NASA Develops Hall-Eff ect Electric Propulsion to Thrust Exploration on into Deep Space
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 11
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Airbus-built SES-12 Dual-mission Satellite Successfully Launched
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 13
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Research & Development
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 15
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 16
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 17
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 18
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 19
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 20
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 21
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 22
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 23
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Case Study
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 25
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 26
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 27
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Product News
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 29
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Industry News
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 31
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Marketplace/ Advertising Index
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - 33
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Spontaneous Thoughts: Dysprosium 2.0
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Cover3
Magnetics Business & Technology - Summer 2018 - Cover4
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