Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 19

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
But although the gap between the theoretical and experimental
results has grown in statistical significance, it is still not an unambiguous
proof of the existence of new particles. " Those who were
sceptical will probably stay sceptical, " Isidori says. " At this point,
the ball is in the theorists' court, " he adds.
Quark calculations
The most widely accepted prediction for the muon's magnetic moment
is a number that the theoretical community published last
year in a 'consensus' paper. But another study published on 7
April, this time in Nature, suggests that the gap between theory
and experiment might not be as large as thought.
The hardest part to calculate is the contribution of quarks, the basic
constituents of protons and neutrons, which is why physicists
have conventionally supplemented their calculations with data
from collider experiments.
In the Nature study, Zoltan Fodor at Pennsylvania State University
in University Park and his collaborators recalculated the quark
contributions from scratch with a simulation technique called lattice
quantum chromodynamics (lattice QCD). The technique had
not previously been used in g − 2 predictions because it was not
mature enough to give high-precision results. Fodor and his team
managed to improve the precision, and found g − 2 to be both larger
than the consensus value and much closer to the experimental
measurement. Other lattice QCD teams are working to match that
precision so that the technique can be used in calculations for the
consensus value, says Aida El-Khadra, a theoretical physicist at
the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. " The other collaborations
are also working on reducing their errors, which requires
significant computational resources, " she says.
Updating the physics
The Muon g − 2 team is now busy analysing some of the more
recent data, as well as collecting more. The researchers ultimately
expect the precision of their measurement to improve fourfold. If
the discrepancy does turn out to be real, then the standard model
will have to be updated to include new particles. One problem
is that since 2001, many possible candidate particles that could
have inflated the muon's magnetic moment have been ruled out
in other experiments, mostly by the Large Hadron Collider outside
Geneva, Switzerland.
Many theories that could explain the Muon g − 2 results remain,
but researchers see them as contrived. " To me there is not a
single explanation which stands out as being far more elegant
or compelling than any other one, " says Dominik Stöckinger, a
theoretical physicist at the Dresden University of Technology in
Germany who is a member of Muon g − 2.
Since it was first put together in the 1970s, the standard model has
passed all tests and has survived almost unchanged. But physicists
are convinced that it must be incomplete, and some hope
that muons will reveal its first failure. " If we confirm a difference
with the standard model, that's what people have been searching
for for 50 years, " says Roberts.
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Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021

Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021
Editor’s Choice/ Features
Reduced-Helium Magnets from Philips a Game-Changer in MRI Scanners
Driven by Global Pandemic, Magnetic Diagnostics Tools from Luminex Take Part in 98% Jump in Business
World’s Most Powerful Tidal Turbine Launched Offshore Scotland
Research & Development
Product News
Industry News
Events Calendar/ Advertising Index
Magnetic Levitation Studied at JPL for Moving Payloads Around the Moon
Visions
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Cover2
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 3
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Editor’s Choice/ Features
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 5
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Reduced-Helium Magnets from Philips a Game-Changer in MRI Scanners
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 7
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Driven by Global Pandemic, Magnetic Diagnostics Tools from Luminex Take Part in 98% Jump in Business
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 9
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 10
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 11
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 12
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 13
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 14
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 15
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - World’s Most Powerful Tidal Turbine Launched Offshore Scotland
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 17
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Research & Development
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 19
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Product News
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 21
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 22
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 23
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Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 25
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Industry News
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 27
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Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 31
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Events Calendar/ Advertising Index
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - 33
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Visions
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Cover3
Magnetics Business & Technology - September/October 2021 - Cover4
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